Rusak Panzer IV ausf G, Tunisia, 1943

Rusak Panzer IV ausf G, Tunisia, 1943

Rusak Panzer IV ausf G, Tunisia, 1943

Di sini kita melihat Panzer IV ausf G yang rusak, tersingkir dalam pertempuran di Tunisia pada awal tahun 1943. Kita melihat ke kanan belakang badan pesawat dan meriam panjang 75mm. Cincin turret harus berasal dari tangki yang berbeda. (Kampanye Afrika Utara)


Selama pengembangan awal Panzer IV, tidak ada yang terlibat dalam program ini yang tahu bahwa kendaraan ini, yang dirancang untuk menjadi Panzer pendukung, akan menjadi tulang punggung Wehrmacht untuk sebagian besar perang. Sementara hari ini Tiger dan Panther lebih dikenal, Panzer IV diproduksi dalam jumlah terbesar dan bertugas di semua lini dalam banyak pertempuran berdarah selama perang.

Pengembangan tank ini dimulai pada pertengahan tiga puluhan, yang mengarah ke versi pertama yang dibangun, Panzer IV Ausf. A. Sebagai versi pertama, masih ada banyak ruang untuk perbaikan. Peningkatan Panzer IV Ausf. Sebuah versi pada akhirnya akan mengarah pada pengembangan dua versi yang hampir identik, Ausf. B dan C.


Foto Perang Dunia

Panzer IV dari Fallschirm Panzer Division 1. Hermann Göring di depan Italia 1944 Panzer IV Belanda 1944-45 Tank Jerman Panzer IV Ausf D 1940 Tank Panzerkampfwagen IV
Tank Panzer IV dan Panzer II yang hancur Panzer IV nomor 705 dari Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler Panzer IV Ausf H nomor 514 angkutan kereta api Belanda 1944 Tank Jerman Panzer IV dengan schurzen
Tank Panzer IV Ausf H nomor 122 kamuflase musim dingin 1944 Panser IV April 1943 Panzer IV Ausf E depan timur 1941 Panzer IV Ausf G Bjelgorod 1943
Tank Panzer IV Bulgaria Tangki Pz.Kpfw IV Ausf G Bridgelayer Brückenleger IV di Sd.Ah. 116 trailer pemuat rendah Panzer IV Ausf A tank 1939
Awak Panzer IV dari Deutsches Afrikakorps Tank Panzer IV Ausf C 1940 Panzer IV Ausf B Lomza Polandia 1939 Panzer IV Depan Timur 1943
Tentara Inggris Melihat ke Atas Tank Jerman Afrika Korps Panzer IV yang hancur Panzer IV dekat Stalingrad 1942 Tank PzKpfw IV Ausf B Panzer IV dari Divisi Panzer ke-5 1940
Panzer IV tank kamuflase musim dingin Panzer IV ausf G ostfront Panser IV Ausf. B dari 10 Divisi Panzer di Graudenz 1939 Tank Jerman Panzer IV Ausf J
Tank Panzer IV Ausf E depan timur 1941 Panzer IV Ausf B tampak depan Panser IV Ausf. G dengan Winterketten Flakpanzer IV Jerman Wirbelwind
Panzer IV Ausf J. Tank nomor 613 1944 Panzer IV Ausf G dengan schurzen, nomor tangki 155. Kursk Juli 1943 Tank Panzer IV Divisi Panzer ke-23 Hongaria 1945 Bolchow Rusia Panzer IV Tank 1942
Panzer IV nomor 533 Tampilan samping tangki Panzer IV Panzer IV Belanda 1944 Panzer IV Ausf D kolom Depan timur musim dingin 1941
Panzer IV Ausf H dengan schurzen dan kamuflase musim dingin. tangki nomor 842 Panzer IV Ausf A Anschluss Panzerparade 1938 Tank Jerman Panzer IV Ausf E dalam perjalanan ke depan – 1941 Panzer IV Ausf F2 Marseille Prancis 1942
Panzer IV DAK dan Truk Beute Panser IV Ausf H 61 Panzer IV dengan zimmerit Panzer IV Ausf G Nr 735 1943
Panzer IV Ausf D depan timur 1941 Tank Panzer IV Ausf G dan kru 1943 Panzer IV Kursk Orel 1943 Tank Panzer IV Rusak Invasi Polandia 1939
Kolom Panzer IV, nomor tangki 333 Musim dingin depan timur 1941 Tangki Panzer IV yang hancur Panzer IV Ausf A. Tank nomor 433 Invasi, Polandia 1939 Bridgelayer Jerman Brückenleger IV
Tank medium Jerman Panzer IV Ausf G beraksi Insinyur tank Infanterie Sturmsteg auf Fgst Panzer IV Ausf. C Panzer IV Italia 1943 Tentara menyalakan api di bawah tangki sebelum dimulai.
Tank Jerman Panzer IV Ausf B. Tank ini memiliki meriam 75 mm laras pendek. Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf C Pz.Kpfw. Tank IV dan III nomor 610 614 Front Timur Infanteri Sturmsteg auf Fgst Panzer IV Ausf. C
Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf F dari DAK Afrika Korps Panzer IV dengan palka turret terbuka – Ostpreussen 1944 Tank Panzerkampfwagen IV di trailer Sd.Ah.116 Panzer IV Ausf F1 nomor 400
Tank Jerman Panzer IV Ausf C dekat Sochaczew Polandia 1939 Tank Panzerkampfwagen IV Jerman dan Pengungsi – Invasi Yugoslavia 1941 Menghancurkan Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf F2 Benghazi Libya 1942 Panzer IV dan tentara Afrika Korps
Panzer IV Ausf F2 dari Divisi Panzer ke-11 Front Timur Panzer IV dari Fallschirm Panzer Division 1. Hermann Goring di Italia 1944 Panzer IV Ausf F1 nomor 413 dari Afrika Korps Panzer IV Ausf C yang Hancur
Panzer IV Ausf C 631 dari Divisi Panzer ke-4 Miedzno Polandia 1939 Tank Panzer IV 642 Polandia 1939 Pz.Kpfw. IV dan Panzermann Front Timur 1941 dekat Lepel Panzer IV
Panzer IV dengan palka turret terbuka – foto berwarna Ditangkap Jerman Pz.Kpfw. Tank IV 933 dari Divisi Panzer ke-8 Panzer IV Prancis 1944 Tank Jerman Panzer IV dengan kamuflase musim dingin
Panzer IV nomor 514 yang terbengkalai Panzer IV November 1942 – The Scuttle Armada Prancis di Toulon Panzer IV Langrohr dari Divisi Hermann Goring, Ostpreussen 1945 Tank Panzer IV Ausf J dengan Zimmerit dari Divisi Das Reich di Prancis 1944
Panzer IV Ausf C Lomza Polandia 1939 Panser IV Ausf. tangki sedang G Panzer IV Ausf A 433 Prancis Infanterie Sturmsteg Nomor 43 dan Bruckenlegepanzer IV auf Panzer IV
Panzer IV dari schwere Panzer Abteilung 503 France Bievres 1944 Panzer IV dan truk yang terbakar Panzer IV Ausf G dari Deutsches Afrikakorps 1942 Tentara Amerika mendekati tank Panzer IV Jerman yang hancur di dekat Salerno
Tanker Jerman berpose di depan Panzer IV Ausf G 1943 2 Tanker Jerman berpose di depan Pz.Kpfw.IV Ausf G-nya dengan winterketten Tank Panzer IV E/G Tank Jerman Panzer IV Ausf F1
Interior tangki Panzer IV Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf C 8 dari divisi panzer ke-10 Panzer IV dan awak tank Tank Jerman Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf G Front Timur 1943
Panzer IV Aus F dengan schurzen Kursk 1943 Panzer IV Ausf G Tank Yunani PzKpfw IV ausf G “Unternehmen Lila” Toulon, November 1942 Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf D selama kampanye Prancis pada tahun 1940
Panzer IV ausf B 443 dan 432 Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf B 1940 Tank Panzer IV Ausf B Dihancurkan oleh ledakan internal Panzer IV Ausf C Jerman menghancurkan Prancis
Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf C Prancis 1940 Tank Tentara Salib melewati Pz.Kpfw yang terbakar. IV selama Operasi Tentara Salib di Libya 1941 Panzer IV Ausf H dari 2nd SS Panzer Division “Das Reich” Prancis 1944 Tank Panzer IV Ausf H Front Timur 1943
Jenderal Erwin Rommel dan Panzer IV dari Divisi Panzer ke-7 Prancis 1940 Tank Jerman Pz.Kpfw. Ausf H nomor 303 1943 Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf H dengan kamuflase musim dingin Front Timur 1943/1944 Panzer IV Ausf C yang Hancur, Polandia 1939
Tank Jerman Panzer IV Ausf H 808, Front Timur Polandia 1944 Tangki Pz.Kpfw IV dekat jembatan ponton Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf C 311 Dihancurkan Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf C, Front Timur
Tank Jerman yang hancur Panzer IV Ausf C Panzer IV Ausf H 303 Italia 1943 Panzer IV Ausf G nomor 135 kamuflase musim dingin 1944 Tank Panzer IV Ausf F1 dimuat di atas gerbong untuk diangkut ke depan.
Panzer IV di trailer + Famo Bruckenleger IV auf Fgst Pz.Kpfw . IV Tank Panzer IV Jerman ausf G Infanteri Terbengkalai-Sturmsteg auf Fahrgestell PzKpfw IV (jembatan insinyur)
Panzer IV Ausf D tangki WW2 /> Panzer IV ausf G tangki tampak depan ww2 Pz.Kpfw. Tank IV Ausf F2 dan M3 Stuart Panzer IV Ausf G Sisilia Jerman nomor 843, 1943
/> Kurland Pocket 1944 Panzer IV Panser IV Ausf. E tank Rusia Flakpanzer IV dengan serpihan 37mm Tank Panzer IV ausf C WWII
/> Panzer IV Ausf J Jerman Dengan Zimmerit Liege Belgia 1944 /> Panzer IV Ausf G dan kru – varian laras panjang /> Panzer IV ausf G tank WW 2 Panzer IV Ausf D WWII, tank musim dingin
Panzer IV ausf F2 belakang Pz.Kpfw IV ausf Tangki, tampak samping Flakpanzer IV Mobelwagen belakang /> Panzer IV ausf F2 wwii tank
/> Tangki Panzer IV ww2 Panzer IV Ausf G crew Ruhr Pocket 1945 /> Panzer IV ausf G dan crew /> Panzer Resimen 4 Panzer IV dengan laras panjang Dan Side Armor (Schurzen)
/> Tangki bridgelayer Bruckenleger IV /> 3,7 cm FlaK auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen IV sf FlakPanzer IV Mobelwagen /> Tank Flakpanzer IV Mobelwagen AA /> Pz.Kpfw IV dan kru Waffen SS Rusia
terlambat Panzer IV nomor 122 /> Angkutan kereta api Panzer IV Panzer IV ausf C melintasi jembatan bantu Bruckenleger IV Herlo lapisan jembatan jerman
Panzer IV ausf H tank tampak depan Tank Jerman Pz.Kpfw IV Ausf G /> Bridgelayer Bruckenleger IV Panzer IV nomor 813 Kleist Panzergruppe di Paliseul Belgia
/> PzKpfw IV Ausf H dari Resimen Panzer 4 /> Tank Panzer IV ausf C /> Pz.Kpfw IV Tank Ausf D dengan Balkenkreuz Front Timur Tank Panzer IV Jerman musim dingin
Bridgelayer Jerman Bruckenleger IV Panzer IV ausf F2 dan kru /> Panzer IV ausf B tank tampak depan /> Panzer IV Ausf H tank, Anzio Italia 1944
Waffen SS Panzer IV ausf G dari Divisi 10 Panzer Frundsberg Tarnopol 1944 Detail turret Panzer IV ausf C /> Panzer IV ausf H nomor 581 winter 1945 /> Panzer IV ausf J Maret 1945 dengan Thoma schurzen
/> Pz.Kpfw IV ausf F2 nomor 215 Afrika Korps (DAK) 1943 /> tank jerman Pz.Kpfw IV ausf D /> tank WW2 Panzer IV ausf G /> PzKpfw IV Ausf. C dari Jerman 9. Divisi Panzer Rumania 1941
Panzer IV di jalan Rusia yang biasanya primitif /> Panzer IV nomor 201 Ditinggalkan Almarhum Panzer IV 1945 /> Pz.Kpfw IV Ausf. C di Yunani 1941
Pz.Kpfw IV Ausf J Jerman di Liege Belgia 1944 /> Panzer IV ausf G nomor 232 /> Tank Panzer IV Ausf G, Juni 1943 Front Timur /> Tank Panzer IV ww2
/> Bruckenleger IV auf Fgst Panzer IV /> Afrika Korps Panzerman dan Panzer IV Tangki Panzer IV di trailer Pz.Kpfw IV divisi 6 panzer Jerman, nomor 613 1940
Pz.Kpfw IV Jerman dengan laras panjang Resimen Panzer 4 Bruckenleger IV auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen IV Panser IV Ausf. H nomor 777, Normandia, Prancis 1944 /> BruckenlegePanzer IV Prancis 1940
Tank Panzer IV ausf G /> Panzer IV Ausf G mengalami ledakan internal – 1944 /> Panzer IV Ausf. C tersingkir Tank Jerman Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf F2
Kendaraan Insinyur Bruckenleger IV /> Pz.Kpfw. Tank IV ausf C di Rusia /> Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf J dan kru Maret 1945 /> Panzer IV Ausf F2 dari 23 Divisi Panzer 1944 Hongaria
Pz.Kpfw. Tank IV Ausf E musim dingin Panzer IV Ausfuehrung D Prancis 1940 Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf. B hancur di Prancis Tangki diangkat ke udara dengan derek pelabuhan
Panzer IV Ausf C di jembatan Panzer IV dengan infanteri Panzer IV Ausf B tank Polandia 1939 Panzer IV Ausf D 1941/1942 Rusia
Panzer IV Ausf C nomor 812 Panzer IV nomor 321 dan Panzer 38(t) dari 7. Divisi Panzer. Komandan divisi Erwin Rommel di latar belakang. Panzer IV ausf H Musim Dingin 1944 Erwin Rommel dan Panzer IV Prancis
Panzer IV Ausf F1, tangki Waffen SS Panzer IV dari Waffen SS, maju menuju Kharkov, Ukraina 1942/1943 Panzer IV dari Waffen SS 1941/1942 Front Timur Rusak Pz.Kpfw IV Ausf D nomor 410
Panzer IV Ausf F dalam lumpur Pz.Kpfw. IV ausf G, roda sproket depan Menara Panzer IV Insinyur Divisi Lapis Baja ke-1 menyapu ranjau di depan dua Panzer IV Anzio 1944
Panzer IV Ausf E “Vorpanzer” Panzer IV Divisi Panzer SS ke-5 Wiking Russia Panzer IV Ausf H dan tentara Inggris Panzer IV nomor 622 1939
Pz.Kpfw. Nomor IV 613 1939 Halftrack Divisi Infanteri ke-35 dan Pz.Kpfw IV Foy Belgium Bulge 1945 Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf G nomor 533 dengan Winterketten selama operasi musim dingin di Front Timur 1943 Pz.Kpfw. IV Prancis 1940 2
Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf C Bruckenlegepanzer IV Panzer IV ausf H Waffen SS 2 Tangki TauchPanzer IV 1941
Pz.Kpfw. Ausf E dari 12 Divisi Panzer Rusia Tichwin 1942 Panzer III dan Tiger Inggris POW Tunisia DAK Afrika Korps Pz.Kpfw IV Ausf D dari Divisi Panzer ke-5 Panzer IV Polandia 1939 5
Tangki Panzer IV Pz.Kpfw IV Prancis 1940 4 Tank Pz.Kpfw IV ausf B dan Panzer II Camo musim dingin Panzer IV Front Timur
Panzer IV Ausf A dari 12 Divisi Panzer, 443 Tank Panzer IV AA Möbelwagen Sd Kfz 161/3. 3,7 cm FlaK auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen IV (sf) Pz.Kpfw IV 12 Divisi Panzer Rusia Tichwin 1942 3 Panzer IV Ausf C Grup Panzer Guderian
Panzer IV Ausf D nomor 321 dan Panzer 38(t) 613 dari 7. Divisi Panzer Pz.Kpfw IV Ausf C dari Divisi Panzer ke-2 (Wehrmacht) Prancis 1940 Pz.Kpfw IV dari 8 Divisi Panzer Lituania Juni 1941 Panzer IV nomor 422
Panzer IV Polandia 1939 Panser IV Ausf. C2 Panzer 4 dengan trek Ostketten Pz.Kpfw IV Ausf H dari Front Timur Divisi Grossdeutschland 1944
Panzer IV nomor 612 1939 KO German Panzerkampfwagen IV ausf H Liege Belgia 1944 Erwin Rommel dan Panzer IV nomor 321 Panzer IV ausf A
Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf E dari 12 Divisi Panzer Rusia Musim Panas 1941 Panzer IV dari Divisi Totenkopf 1941 Rusia Panzer IV ausf E Pz.Kpfw. IV ausf E depan timur
Panzer IV dengan zimmerit (pasta anti-magnetik khusus) Panzer IV 12 Divisi Panzer Rusia Tichwin1942 tangki tersingkir Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf C Panzer IV Bulgaria Ausf G
Mobelwagen 3.7 cm FlaK auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen IV sf Panzer IV Möbelwagen 3.7 cm FlaK auf Fahrgestell Panzerkampfwagen IV sf Panser IV Ausf. Tank G dari Waffen SS – Uni Soviet PzKpfw IV Ausf G Front Timur
Panzer IV di Polandia 1939 Panser IV nomor 323 Pz.Kpfw. IV Polandia September 1939 4 Panzerkampfwagen IV Ausf. E
Panzer IV Ausf F1 Rusia musim dingin Pz.Kpfw.IV 8 Panzer IV ausf H nomor 313 Danmark 1944 Panzer IV Orleans Prancis 1940
Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf C dari Resimen Panzer 5 Afrika Korps 1941 DAK Panzer IV di musim dingin Kamuflase musim dingin Panzer IV ausf G Tank medium Jerman Pz.Kpfw. IV
Panzer IV ausf B Pz.Kpfw IV Vorpanzer 2 Panzer IV ausf F2 Prancis Pz.Kpfw IV dari Resimen Panzer 5 Afrika Korps 1941
Panzer IV Ausf F1 Olianowo Rusia 1942 Panzer IV ausf D Panzer IV Ausf C Front timur Rusia Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf G Unternehmen Zitadelle
Panzer IV Ausf C Panzer IV Ausf D Pz.Kpfw. IV Ausf D dihancurkan di Prancis 1940 Kendaraan Insinyur Infanteri Sturmsteg auf Fgst Panzer IV Ausf. C
Bruckenleger IV Pz.Kpfw IV nomor 632 1939 Panzerkampfwagen IV ausf B Polandia 1939

Konstruksi

Flakpanzer I menggunakan sasis dan lambung Panzer I Ausf.A yang hampir tidak berubah. Ini terdiri dari kompartemen mengemudi depan, kompartemen kru pusat dan kompartemen mesin belakang.

Mesin

Desain kompartemen mesin belakang dibiarkan hampir tidak berubah. Mesin utamanya adalah Krupp M 305 empat silinder yang menghasilkan 60 [email protected] 500 rpm. Satu-satunya sumber yang menyebutkan performa mengemudi Flakpanzer I adalah D. Nešić (Naoružanje Drugog Svetsko Rata-Nemačka). Menurutnya, bobotnya bertambah menjadi 6,3 ton (dari semula 5,4 ton). Peningkatan bobot menyebabkan penurunan kecepatan maksimum dari 37,5 menjadi 35 km/jam. Sumber ini juga mencatat bahwa jangkauan operasional adalah 145 km. Ini mungkin salah, seperti Panzer I Ausf biasa. Jangkauan operasional A adalah 140 km. Kecuali jika ada peningkatan dari beban bahan bakar 140 l asli yang tidak disebutkan dalam sumber, ini tampaknya tidak mungkin.

Berat tambahan ekstra juga bisa menyebabkan masalah mesin yang terlalu panas. Untuk mencegah hal ini, dua lubang yang lebih besar dengan lebar 50 sampai 70 mm dipotong terbuka di kompartemen mesin untuk memberikan ventilasi yang lebih baik. Beberapa kendaraan memiliki beberapa lubang kecil berukuran 10 mm yang dipotong untuk tujuan yang sama. Perubahan lain adalah penghapusan ventilasi yang biasanya terletak di sisi kanan lambung. Tujuannya adalah untuk memberikan udara panas ke kompartemen kru.

Penangguhan

Flakpanzer I menggunakan Panzer I Ausf yang tidak dimodifikasi. Sebuah suspensi. Ini terdiri dari lima roda jalan di setiap sisi. Roda jalan terakhir, yang lebih besar dari yang lain, bertindak sebagai pemalas. Roda pertama menggunakan dudukan pegas koil dengan peredam kejut elastis untuk mencegah pembengkokan ke luar. Empat roda yang tersisa (termasuk roda terakhir yang lebih besar) dipasang berpasangan pada dudukan suspensi dengan unit pegas daun. Ada satu sproket penggerak depan dan tiga rol balik per sisi.

Pemandangan Panzer I Ausf yang tidak berubah. Sebuah suspensi. Sumber: ww2.wiki

Superstruktur

Superstruktur Panzer I asli banyak dimodifikasi. Pertama, turret dan bagian atas suprastruktur serta bagian pelindung samping dan belakang dilepas. Di atas pelindung superstruktur bagian depan, pelat lapis baja setinggi 18 cm dilas. Selain itu, dua pelat berbentuk segitiga yang lebih kecil ditambahkan ke pelindung sisi depan. Armor tambahan ini berfungsi untuk melindungi bukaan antara bagian bawah perisai senjata dan bangunan atas. Visor pengemudi dan dua sisi dibiarkan tidak berubah.

Pelat pelindung depan yang ditambahkan terlihat jelas di foto ini, sedikit di atas kaca depan pengemudi. Sumber: Pinterest

Di atas kendaraan, platform berbentuk persegi baru untuk meriam utama dipasang. Berbeda dengan turret Panzer I asli yang ditempatkan secara asimetris, meriam baru ditempatkan di tengah kendaraan. Panzer I adalah kendaraan kecil, dan untuk menyediakan ruang kerja yang layak bagi kru, Jerman menambahkan dua platform lipat tambahan. Ini ditempatkan di sisi kendaraan dan beberapa kendaraan memiliki satu lagi di belakang, tepat di belakang mesin. Platform sebenarnya terdiri dari dua pelat berbentuk persegi panjang. Pelat pertama dilas ke superstruktur, sedangkan pelat kedua bisa dilipat untuk menyediakan ruang kerja tambahan.

Sebuah Flakpanzer I dengan platform samping lipat, yang diangkat selama pawai. Sumber: Pinterest Saat menyerang target (dalam hal ini, mungkin target darat), kru akan menurunkan platform samping untuk memiliki lebih banyak ruang kerja. Tetapi meskipun demikian, Flakpanzer I adalah kendaraan yang cukup sempit. Sumber: Pinterest

Karena bahkan ini tidak cukup, kru harus bergerak di sekitar kompartemen mesin. Panzer I memiliki penutup knalpot yang ditempatkan di kedua sisi mesin, jadi kru harus berhati-hati agar tidak terbakar secara tidak sengaja.

Persenjataan

Persenjataan utama Flakpanzer I adalah meriam antipesawat Flak 38 2 cm. Ini adalah senjata yang dimaksudkan untuk menggantikan Flak 30 2 cm yang lebih tua, yang sebenarnya tidak pernah dilakukan. Ini dirancang oleh Mauser Werke, menggabungkan banyak elemen Flak 30 dengan beberapa perubahan internal, seperti penambahan mekanisme baut baru dan pegas balik. Untuk memberi kru beberapa tingkat perlindungan, perisai lapis baja dipertahankan. Pistol itu memiliki lintasan penuh 360° dan ketinggian -20° hingga +90°. Jangkauan efektif maksimum adalah 2 km terhadap target udara dan 1,6 km terhadap target darat. Laju tembakan maksimum adalah antara 420 dan 480, tetapi laju tembakan praktis biasanya antara 180 hingga 220 peluru.

Flak 38 cm 2 cm. Sumber: WIki

Menariknya, Penulis D. Nešić (Naoružanje Drugog Svetsko Rata-Nemačka) menyebutkan bahwa prototipe Flakpanzer I pertama dipersenjatai dengan meriam 2 cm Breda Model 1935 Italia. Mengapa senjata khusus ini digunakan sayangnya tidak disebutkan oleh sumber ini. Ada kemungkinan penulis hanya bingung dengan konversi Panzer I Nasionalis Spanyol yang dipersenjatai dengan senjata yang sama.

Flak 38 2 cm tidak berubah dan dapat (jika diperlukan) dengan mudah dilepas dari kendaraan. Performa keseluruhan dan karakteristiknya juga tidak berubah pada Flakpanzer I. Waktu untuk menyebar dari barisan ke posisi tempur berkisar antara 4 hingga 6 menit. Amunisi untuk meriam utama dibawa di dalam lambung, tepat di samping pengemudi dan operator radio. Beban amunisi terdiri dari 250 butir peluru. Jumlah ini tidak biasa, karena klip Flak 38 normal 2 cm berisi 20 putaran. Amunisi cadangan tambahan (dan perlengkapan lainnya) dibawa baik di trailer Sd.Ah.51 (tidak semua kendaraan memilikinya) atau di kendaraan pendukung. Tidak ada persenjataan sekunder yang dibawa, tetapi para kru mungkin dipersenjatai dengan pistol atau senapan mesin ringan untuk pertahanan diri.

Flakpanzer I ini dilengkapi dengan trailer Sd.Ah.51 di mana amunisi tambahan, barel cadangan dan peralatan lainnya akan disimpan. Sumber: www.worldwarphotos.info

Baju zirah

Armor Flakpanzer I cukup tipis. Armor lambung depan Panzer I berkisar antara 8 hingga 13 mm. Armor samping memiliki ketebalan 13 hingga 14,5 mm, bagian bawah 5 mm dan bagian belakang 13 mm. Operator senjata hanya dilindungi oleh perisai senjata Flak 38 2 cm, dengan bagian samping, belakang dan atas benar-benar terkena tembakan musuh.

Flakpanzer I berlapis baja ringan. Awak senjata di samping perisai senjata benar-benar terkena tembakan musuh. Sumber: firearmcentral.fandom.com

Untuk kendaraan sekecil itu, Flakpanzer I memiliki delapan awak yang besar. Lima di antaranya akan ditempatkan di kendaraan itu sendiri. Mereka terdiri dari komandan, penembak, pemuat, pengemudi, dan operator radio. Posisi pengemudi tidak berubah dari Panzer I asli, dan dia duduk di sisi kiri kendaraan. Di sebelah kanannya, operator radio (dengan peralatan radio Fu 2) diposisikan. Untuk memasuki posisi mereka, mereka harus menyelipkan diri di antara pelindung depan dan platform senjata. Keduanya adalah satu-satunya anggota kru yang dilindungi sepenuhnya. Tiga anggota kru yang tersisa ditempatkan di sekitar platform senjata.

Meskipun kendaraannya kecil, Flakpanzer I membutuhkan kru yang besar untuk mengoperasikan senjata dengan baik. Pistol 2 cm memiliki siklus penembakan yang cepat, yang meminta pasokan amunisi yang konstan. Sumber: Panzer.net

Tiga anggota awak tambahan ditempatkan di kendaraan pasokan tambahan dan mungkin bertanggung jawab untuk menyediakan amunisi tambahan atau bertindak sebagai pengintai target.


Panzer IV - Pekerja Keras

Pada November 1943, Alkett, produsen StuG III, mengalami kerusakan akibat serangan bom. Alkett memproduksi 255 StuG III pada Oktober 1943, tetapi pada bulan Desember produksi turun menjadi hanya 24 kendaraan. Sebuah konferensi yang diadakan pada tanggal 6 & 82117 Desember 1943, membahas kemungkinan solusi untuk masalah ini. Hitler menyambut baik saran untuk mengambil superstruktur StuG III dan memasangnya pada sasis Panzer IV. StuG IV bisa lebih cepat diproduksi daripada Jagdpanzer IV pada saat itu. Ini memulai kembali proyek Sturmgeschütz IV. Kali ini suprastruktur StuG III Ausf. G dipasang pada sasis Panzer IV 7, dengan kompartemen kotak untuk pengemudi ditambahkan. Berat tempur adalah 23000 kg, lebih ringan dari 23900 kg untuk StuG III Ausf. G. Pada 16-17 Desember 1943, Hitler ditunjukkan StuG IV dan menyetujuinya. Untuk menutupi defisit yang besar dalam produksi StuG III, produksi StuG IV kini mendapat dukungan penuh.

Dari Desember 1943 hingga Mei 1945, Krupp membangun 1.108 StuG IV dan mengubah tambahan 31 dari lambung Panzer IV yang rusak akibat pertempuran. Meskipun jumlahnya lebih kecil dari 10.000+ StuG III, StuG IV melengkapi dan bertempur bersama StuG III selama 1944-45, ketika mereka paling dibutuhkan.


Isi

Panser ( / p n z r / Pengucapan bahasa Jerman: [ˈpantsɐ] ( dengarkan ) ) adalah kata Jerman yang berarti "baju besi". Itu berasal dari kata Prancis pancier, "pelindung dada", dari bahasa Latin pantex, "perut". [2]

Kata tersebut digunakan dalam bahasa Inggris dan beberapa bahasa lain sebagai kata pinjaman dalam konteks militer Jerman. Secara khusus, ini digunakan dalam nama yang tepat dari formasi militer (Divisi Panzer, 4th Panzer Army, dll.), dan dengan nama yang tepat dari tank, seperti Panzer IV, dll.

Istilah Jerman tanggal adalah Panzerkampfwagen, "tank" atau "kendaraan tempur lapis baja". Sinonim modern yang umum digunakan adalah Kampfpanzer, atau "pertempuran panserTank Jerman pertama, A7V tahun 1918, disebut sebagai a Sturmpanzerwagen (kira-kira, "kendaraan serbu lapis baja").

Pasukan tank Jerman sukses terutama karena inovasi taktis. [3] Menggunakan apa yang disebut "Serangan kilat" ("perang kilat") taktik, Heinz Guderian, Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist dan komandan lapangan lainnya seperti Erwin Rommel memecahkan jeda Perang Phoney dengan cara yang hampir di luar pemahaman Sekutu — dan, memang, Jerman — Tinggi Memerintah. Pada dasarnya, sebagai unit yang koheren, taktik senjata gabungan dari "blitzkrieg" mengejutkan Sekutu.

Meskipun demikian, pasukan Panzer Jerman pada awal Perang Dunia II tampak tidak terlalu mengesankan. Hanya 4% dari anggaran pertahanan dihabiskan untuk produksi kendaraan tempur lapis baja (AFV). Guderian telah merencanakan dua tank utama: Panzer III dan Panzer IV, dengan produksi masing-masing dimulai pada tahun 1936 dan 1937. Pekerjaan desain untuk Panzer IV telah dimulai pada tahun 1935 dan uji coba prototipe dilakukan pada tahun 1937, tetapi pada saat invasi ke Polandia hanya beberapa ratus model 'percobaan pasukan' yang tersedia. Pekerjaan pengembangan kemudian dihentikan dan produksi terbatas dimulai oleh Krupp di Magdeburg (Grusonwerk AG), Essen dan Bochum pada Oktober 1939 dengan 20 kendaraan yang dibangun. Namun, bahkan jumlah yang rendah itu tidak dapat dipertahankan, dengan produksi turun menjadi sepuluh pada April 1940. Jumlah produksi yang rendah seperti itu disebabkan oleh tank-tank yang diberi prioritas rendah untuk baja dibandingkan dengan kebutuhan tentara yang lebih konvensional, seperti peluru artileri.

Pengembangan dan kinerja Panzer III Sunting

Meski demikian, jumlah Panzer IV yang tersedia (211) masih lebih banyak dibandingkan Panzer III (98). Ada juga masalah teknis dengan Panzer III: secara luas dianggap kurang meriam dengan meriam KwK L/45 37 mm dan produksi dibagi di antara empat pabrikan (MAN, Daimler-Benz, Rheinmetall-Borsig, dan Krupp) dengan kurang memperhatikan keahlian masing-masing perusahaan, dan tingkat produksi pada awalnya sangat rendah (40 pada September 1939, 58 pada Juni 1940), hingga Desember 1940 mencapai 100 contoh per bulan. Pasukan panzer untuk kemenangan awal Jerman adalah campuran dari tank ringan Panzer I (hanya senapan mesin), Panzer II (meriam 20 mm) dan dua model tank Ceko (Panzer 38(t) dan Panzer 35(t) )). Pada Mei 1940 ada 349 tank Panzer III yang tersedia untuk menyerang Prancis dan Low Countries. Meskipun tank Jerman tampak secara numerik dan teknis lebih rendah daripada pasukan lapis baja Anglo-Prancis, dilengkapi dengan jumlah kendaraan menengah dan berat yang lebih besar, kru Jerman dilatih dan berpengalaman dalam taktik gabungan baru tank, senjata anti-tank dan pengebom tukik, mampu memanfaatkan keunggulan Panzer III, khususnya, sistem komunikasi radio modern dan penempatan tiga orang di menara yang menghasilkan efisiensi yang lebih besar di lapangan, memenangkan Pertempuran Prancis. [4]

Keberatan terhadap persenjataan meriam terbatas Panzer III diakui selama konsepsinya, dan desainnya diubah untuk menyertakan cincin turret besar agar memungkinkan untuk memuat 2250 ft/s (656 m/s) 50 mm KwK L/ 42 senjata pada model selanjutnya. Pada bulan Juli 1940, terlalu terlambat untuk melihat aksi di minggu-minggu terakhir Pertempuran Prancis, 17 model pertama diproduksi. Ditunjuk Panzer III Ausf. F, perubahan lainnya termasuk mesin Maybach yang ditingkatkan dan banyak perubahan kecil untuk memudahkan produksi massal.

Ausf. F dengan cepat digantikan oleh Ausf. G dengan mantel meriam lapis baja, yang merupakan tank utama Korps Afrika pada tahun 1940–41 dan juga beraksi di Yugoslavia dan Yunani. Sekitar 2.150 Panzer III diproduksi, di mana sekitar 450 di antaranya adalah Ausf G. Tank-tank ini masih memiliki persenjataan yang kurang, lapis baja yang buruk, dan secara mekanis terlalu rumit dibandingkan dengan tank Inggris yang setara. Setelah pertempuran di Libya pada akhir 1940, Ausf. H dimasukkan ke dalam produksi dengan mekanik yang lebih sederhana, trek yang lebih lebar, dan armor yang ditingkatkan. Pada bulan April 1941 ada "penarikan kembali" umum Panzer III untuk meningkatkan meriam utama menjadi 50 mm L/60 baru, dengan yang baru Panzergranate 40 proyektil, dan kecepatan moncong didorong ke 3875 ft/s (1.181 m/s). Tank baru yang diproduksi dengan senjata ini diberi nama Ausf. J.

Invasi Uni Soviet dalam Operasi Barbarossa menandakan perubahan yang sangat penting dalam pengembangan tank Jerman. Pada Juni 1941, tank Panzer III pertama kali bertemu T-34 Soviet. Awalnya Jerman memiliki 1.449 tank Panzer III yang siap tempur, sekitar 950 di antaranya adalah versi yang dilengkapi dengan meriam L/42 50 mm, yang merupakan kekuatan tank utama Wehrmacht. [5] Pada bulan Juli 1941 36 panzer dan divisi infanteri bermotor ditugaskan untuk invasi, menurunkan lebih dari 3000 AFV.

Sementara tank Jerman lebih rendah dalam hal lapis baja, persenjataan, dan jumlah, [6] pasukan lapis baja Soviet hampir dimusnahkan selama bulan-bulan pertama kampanye oleh divisi panzer Jerman, yang terbukti jauh lebih berpengalaman dan efisien: lebih dari 17.000 tank Soviet dihancurkan atau ditinggalkan. Soviet mengeluhkan kekurangan mekanis yang serius dan cacat desain pada tank T-34 mereka. Juga, para kru tidak berpengalaman dan dukungan logistik tidak mencukupi. Di medan perang, meriam 50 mm Panzer III mampu merusak tank T-34 secara serius dan pada jarak pertempuran biasa—500 meter (1.600 kaki) hingga 1.000 meter (3.300 kaki)—tank Jerman tidak kalah hebatnya. Lebih sulit bagi tank Panzer III untuk melawan tank KV-1 yang lebih berat dengan armor mereka yang hampir tidak bisa ditembus di bagian depan. [7]

Selama kampanye Afrika Utara, tank Panzer III, terutama model yang lebih tua, mengalami masalah dalam pertempuran langsung melawan tank Inggris Matilda II, karena keunggulan armor mereka dan senjata Ordnance QF 2-pon yang kuat. [8] Meskipun demikian, tank Panzer III berhasil memperoleh kemenangan penting, seperti dalam Pertempuran Gazala, di mana tank tersebut, yang dipekerjakan dengan terampil oleh kru Jerman yang berpengalaman dan didukung oleh formasi anti-tank, mencapai hasil yang paling cemerlang dari penyebarannya. di Afrika, meskipun ada beberapa kesulitan melawan tank berat Sekutu. Pasukan lapis baja Inggris, di sisi lain, hampir hancur. [9]

Armor Panzer III ditingkatkan menjadi 70 mm dengan pelat tambahan, dan armor spasial diperkenalkan untuk melindungi dari serangan hollow charge (alias high-explosive anti-tank). Namun tank Panzer IV pertama dengan meriam 75 mm L/48 menandai berakhirnya peran Panzer III sebagai tank utama Jerman. Akhirnya, produksi Panzer III berakhir pada Agustus 1943 dengan Ausf. M (konversi dari tipe lama), kendaraan telah ditingkatkan menjadi meriam L/24 75 mm dan diturunkan ke peran pendukung. Sasis Panzer III terus diproduksi hingga akhir perang sebagai basis untuk berbagai kendaraan tujuan khusus seperti Sturmgeschütz III.

Pengembangan dan kinerja Panzer IV Sunting

Meskipun lambat, produksi Panzer IV dilanjutkan pada akhir 1940 386 Ausf. Model D sedang dalam pelayanan dan pada tahun 1941 480 lebih lanjut diproduksi, meskipun ada pesanan dari tentara untuk 2.200. Pistol pendek 75 mm (2,95 in) L/24 adalah keunggulan utama Panzer IV, bobot dan pelindung model awal mendekati Panzer III.

Dengan peningkatan meriam pendek 75 mm L/24 Panzer IV menjadi meriam 75 mm berkecepatan tinggi yang lebih panjang, cocok untuk penggunaan anti-tank, tank ini terbukti sangat efektif. Meriam L/43 baru ini dapat menembus T-34 pada berbagai sudut benturan di luar jarak 1.000 m (3.300 kaki) dan hingga 1.600 m (5.200 kaki). [10] [11] Di Front Timur, pengiriman model pertama yang memasang meriam baru, Ausf. F2, dimulai pada musim semi 1942 dan dengan serangan Case Blue ada sekitar 135 Panzer IV dengan meriam tank L/43 yang tersedia. Pada saat itu, ini adalah satu-satunya tank Jerman yang dapat mengalahkan model T-34-85 yang lebih baru dengan daya tembak belaka. [12] Mereka memainkan peran penting dalam peristiwa yang terjadi antara Juni 1942 dan Maret 1943, [13] dan Panzer IV menjadi andalan divisi panzer Jerman. [14]

Di Front Barat, meriam 75 mm M3 M4 Sherman Amerika, mengalami kesulitan menghadapi model akhir Panzer IV. [15] Armor lambung depan 80 mm (3,15 in) model akhir Panzer IV dapat dengan mudah menahan serangan dari senjata 75 mm pada Sherman pada jarak pertempuran normal. [16] The British up-gunned the Sherman with their highly effective Ordnance QF 17-pounder gun, resulting in the Sherman Firefly, which was the only Allied tank capable of dealing with all German tanks, at normal combat ranges, in time for the Normandy landings. [17] It was not until July 1944 that American Shermans fitted with the 76 mm gun M1 gun achieved parity in firepower with the Panzer IV. [18]

Later Panzer IV variants further improved the gun to the 75 mm L/48 but were mainly characterized by increasing the main armor and adding spacer and skirt armor to protect against anti-tank weapons. Zimmerit paste to prevent magnetic charges being attached was also introduced on the Panzer IV. [19]

About 12,000 Panzer IV tanks (derived chassis included) were produced during the war, more than twice as many as the next German tank.

Panzer V (Panther) development and performance Edit

Despite continued efforts with the lighter tanks throughout the war, German designers also produced a direct counter to the heavier Allied tanks with the PzKpfw V, the Panther (in 1944 the PzKpfw designation was dropped and the vehicle was known simply as the "Panther"). Design work on the replacement for the Panzer IV had begun in 1937 and prototypes were being tested in 1941. The emergence of the Soviet T-34 led to an acceleration of this leisurely time-table. At the insistence of Guderian a team was dispatched to the eastern front in November 1941 to assess the T-34 and report. Three features of the Soviet tank were considered the most significant: the top was the sloped armor all round which gave much-improved shot deflection and also increased the armor effective relative thickness against penetration the second was the wide track and large road wheels that improved stability and third was the long over-hanging gun, a feature German designers had avoided up to then. Daimler-Benz and MAN were tasked with designing and building a new 30–35 ton tank by spring 1942. At the same time the existing prototype tanks were up-gunned to 88 mm and ordered into production as the PzKpfw VI, the Tiger.

The two T-34 influenced proposals were delivered in April 1942. The Daimler-Benz design was a "homage" to the T-34, ditching the propensity for engineering excellence, and hence complexity, to produce a clean, simple design with plenty of potential. The MAN design was more conventional to German thinking and was the one accepted by the Waffenprüfamt 6 committee. A prototype was demanded by May and design detail work was assigned to Kniepkampf.

If the overhanging gun and sloping armor are ignored the Panther was a conventional German design: its internal layout for the five crew was standard and the mechanicals were complex. Weighing 43 tons it was powered by a 700 hp (522 kW) gasoline engine driving eight double-leaved bogie wheels on each side, control was through a seven-speed gearbox and hydraulic disc brakes. The armor was homogenous steel plate, welded but also interlocked for strength. Preproduction models had only 60 mm armor, but this was soon increased to 80 mm on the production Ausf. D and later models had a maximum of 120 mm. The main gun was a 75 mm L/70 with 79 rounds, supported by one or two MG 34 machine guns.

The MAN design was officially accepted in September 1942 and put into immediate production with top priority, finished tanks were being produced just two months later and suffered from reliability problems as a result of this haste. With a production target of 600 vehicles a month the work had to be expanded out of MAN to include Daimler-Benz, and in 1943 the firms of Maschinenfabrik Niedersachsen-Hannover and Henschel. Due to disruption monthly production never approached the target, peaking in 1944 with 330 a month and ending around February 1945 with at least 5,964 built. In addition to these mainstream efforts the German army also experimented with a variety of unusual prototypes and also put into production several peculiarities. Some Tiger tanks were fitted with anti-personnel grenade launchers that were loaded and fired from within the tank as an anti-ambush device.

The Panther first saw action in the Battle of Kursk beginning on July 5, 1943, where it served alongside the Panzer IV and the heavier Tiger I. The Panther proved to be effective in open country and long range engagements [20] and is considered one of the best tanks of World War II for its excellent firepower and protection, although its initial tech reliability was less impressive. [21] [22]


Isi

The Sturmgeschütz IV resulted from Krupp's effort to supply an assault gun. As Krupp did not build Panzerkampfwagen IIIs, they used the Panzerkampfwagen IV chassis in combination with a slightly modified Sturmgeschütz III superstructure.

The first known proposal for a Sturmgeschütz on the Panzer IV chassis is in Krupp drawing number W1468 dated February 1943. This initial drawing unitized the outdated Sturmgeschütz Ausf. F superstructure on a Panzer IV chassis 9. This proposal had a sloped front superstructure with a combat weight of 28.26 tons. Krupp abandoned it in February 1943 because it was too heavy. Plans for the StuG IV were halted.

During the Führer Conference of August 19–22, 1943, after the battle of Kursk, Hitler had seen reports of the StuG III outperforming the Panzer IV when used in an infantry support role and tactical defence. Convinced that a tank-hunter version would be superior to the tank version, Hitler planned to switch Panzer IV production to "Panzerjäger IV" production as soon as possible. It was to mount the same 7.5 cm L/70 used for the Panther. Another manufacturer, Vomag built a prototype Panzerjäger IV with 7.5 cm L/48 gun and demonstrated it on October 20, 1943. It was later re-designated as Jagdpanzer IV Ausf. F. As the Jagdpanzer IV was already being produced by Vomag, the StuG IV may not have materialized, had it not been for the major disruption of StuG III production, and the scarce supply of the 7.5 cm L/70 gun designated for the Jagdpanzer IV.

In November 1943, Alkett, the manufacturer of the StuG III, suffered damage in a bombing raid. Alkett produced 255 StuG III in October 1943, but in December production fell to just 24 vehicles. A conference held December 6–7, 1943, addressed possible solutions to this problem. Hitler welcomed the suggestion of taking the StuG III superstructure and mounting it on a Panzer IV chassis. The StuG IV could be more quickly manufactured than the Jagdpanzer IV at the time. This restarted the Sturmgeschütz IV project. This time, the superstructure of the StuG III Ausf. G was mounted on a Panzer IV chassis 7, with a box compartment for the driver added. Combat weight was 23000 kg, lighter than the 23900 kg for the StuG III Ausf. G. On Dec. 16-17, 1943, Hitler was shown the StuG IV and approved it. To make up for the large deficit in StuG III production StuG IV production was now given full support.

From December 1943 to May 1945, Krupp built 1,108 StuG IVs and converted an additional 31 from battle-damaged Panzer IV hulls. While the number is smaller than the 10,000+ StuG III, the StuG IV supplemented and fought along with StuG III during 1944-45, when they were most needed.


Sunday, January 31, 2021

Panzer IV of Panzer-Abteilung 8

This slide is from the estate of Siegfried Keller, which belonged to Panzer-Abteilung 8. The Panzer-Abteilung 8 was formed in October 1943 as replacement for the destroyed Panzer-Regiment 8 and was assigned to 20. Panzergrenadier-Division. The detachment was established in late 1943, and there is no information about Keller's previous career. This tank, Pz.Kpfw.IV Ausf.G, chassis number 82849, was sent to the unit in May 1942. The entire surface is factory painted in Tropen 2 scheme, but inside of the hatches remain gray as seen, and it suggests that gray painted parts was assembled at the factory and painted in Tropen 2 before shipment. The gun tube was later installed, therefore the gray primer color is retained. The spare wheel at the front is in red primer but when you look at it closely the center hub is painted in Tropen 2. Other interesting features like red cross painted on the superstructure front, light gray fire extinguisher, etc.

Source :
Akira Takiguchi photo collection
https://www.axishistory.com/about-ahf/153-germany-heer/heer-other-units/9181-panzer-abteilung-8
https://www.facebook.com/photo/?fbid=10222991026797609&set=gm.1662913953894021


Update for March 2017 at HistoryofWar.org: North African Campaign, Lutzen & Bautzen 1813, Ancient Greece and Persia, Wickes class destroyers, Supermarine & Boulton Paul Aircraft and US Heavy Tanks.

Update for March 2017 at HistoryofWar.org: North African Campaign, Lutzen & Bautzen 1813, Ancient Greece and Persia, Wickes class destroyers, Supermarine & Boulton Paul Aircraft and US Heavy Tanks.

This month we post our main article on the North African Campaign of 1940-43, one of the longest land campaign fought by the British army during the Second World War, and cover the central part of the campaign in more detail, from Operation Battleaxe to the fall of Tobruk to Rommel.

Our series on the War of Liberation of 1813 covers the period of the battles of Lützen and Bautzen, Napoleon's best chances to defeat the Prussians and Russians before their gained more allies.

In antiquity we look at some of the battles of the Third Sacred War, the Fourth Sacred War, which saw Philip II of Macedon rise to a dominant position in Greece, and the careers of the Persian Emperors Darius I the Great and Xerxes I, best known for their attempts to invade Greece.

In military technology we continue through the Wickes class destroyers, look at US Heavy Tanks, and cover pre-war Supermarine aircraft and wartime Boulton Paul aircraft designs.

North African Campaign

The North African Campaign (1940-1943) produced some of the British army's most iconic moments of the Second World War, and the Allied and Axis armies repeated advance back and forward across Libya, before the Allied victories of El Alamein and Operation Torch forced the Axis forces back into an increasingly small bridgehead in Tunisia.

Operation Battleaxe (15-17 June 1941) was an unsuccessful British offensive in North Africa, carried out in an attempt to raise the siege of Tobruk

Operation Crusader (18 November-20 December 1941) was Rommel's first defeat in North Africa, and was a confused battle, won in part by a combination of Auchinleck's determination and Rommel's rash 'dash to the wire'.

Rommel's Second Offensive (21 January-4 February 1942) was an unexpected counterattack that forced the British to retreat 350 miles, from the western border of Cyrenaica to the Gazala Line, and set the scene for Rommel's advance into Egypt later in the year

The battle of Gazala (26 May-14 June 1942) was Rommel's most impressive victory in North Africa, and saw him force the British to abandon the defences of the Gazala Line and retreat back towards the Egyptian frontier. In the aftermath of the battle he was also able to capture Tobruk, which had held out for eight months in 1941, but fell after the first serious attack in 1942.

The siege of Tobruk (17-21 June 1942) was one of the more embarrassing British defeats in North Africa, and helped to reduce Churchill's confidence in General Auchinleck's abilities as a commander.

The battle of Mersa Matruh (26-28 June 1942) was Rommel's last victory against the Eighth Army, and saw him brush aside a British attempt to defend the Mersa Matruh position

The action of Poserna (1 May 1813) was a French victory on the road to Lützen, but one that cost them Marshal Bessières, who was killed by a cannon shot during the battle.

The battle of Lützen (2 May 1813) was Napoleon's first victory during the Spring campaign of 1813 (War of Liberation), but he was unable to take full advantage of his victory, and the Prussians and Russians were able to escape east with their armies largely intact.

The combat of Colditz (5 May 1813) was a rearguard action during the Allied retreat after their defeat at Lutzen three days earlier.

The combat of Konigswartha (19 May 1813) took place on the day before the battle of Bautzen (20-21 May 1813) and saw the French defeat an Allied force that had been sent out to attack Lauriston's corps (War of Liberation).

The battle of Bautzen (20-21 May 1813) was the second major battle of the Spring Campaign of 1813, and saw Napoleon come close to winning the descisive victory he needed to knock at least one of his opponents out of the war.

The combat of Reichenbach (22 May 1813) was a rearguard action during the Allied retreat after their defeat at Bautzen, most notable for the death of one of Napoleon's closest friends, the Grand Marshal Duroc.

The combat of Görlitz (23 May 1813) saw the French force their way across the River Neisse, on the border between Saxony and Silesia, in the aftermath of their victory at Bautzen (20-21 May 1813).

Ancient Greece and Persia

Darius I the Great (r.522-486) was the third Persian emperor of the Achaemenid dynasty, and was a successful leader, despite being best known in the west for the failure of his invasion of Greece.

Xerxes I (r.486-465 BC) was a Persian emperor most famous for the defeat of his massive invasion of Greece of 480-479 BC.

The battle of Orchomenus (c.352 BC) was the first in a series of defeats suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus during a failed invasion of Boeotia (Third Sacred War).

The battle of the Cephisus River (c.352) was the second in a series of defeats suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus during a failed invasion of Boeotia (Third Sacred War).

The battle of Abae (c.352 BC) was one of a series of setbacks suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus, and came after a unsuccessful invasion of Boeotia and a failure to capture the city of Naryx (Third Sacred War).

The battle of Coroneia (c.352) was the second in a series of defeats suffered by the Phocian leader Phayllus during a failed invasion of Boeotia (Third Sacred War).

The Fourth Sacred War or Amphissean War (339-339 BC) was the final step in Philip II of Macedon's rise to a position of dominance in Greece, and ended with the defeat of the joint Athenian and Theban army at the battle of Chaeronea.

USS Colhoun (DD-85/ APD-2) was a Wickes class destroyer that saw limited service towards the end of the First World War, and was later converted into a fast transport and sunk in a Japanese air attack off Guadalcanal.

USS Stevens (DD-86) was a Wickes class destroyer that served from Queenstown during the First World War, and supported the first successful transatlantic flight in 1919.

USS McKee (DD-87) adalah perusak kelas Wickes yang melakukan satu misi ke Azores selama Perang Dunia Pertama, dan memiliki karir pascaperang terbatas sebelum dinonaktifkan pada tahun 1922.

USS Robinson (DD-88) was a Wickes class destroyer that was commissioned too late to see service during the First World War, but that served in the Royal Navy as HMS Newmarket during the Second World War.

USS Ringgold (DD-89) was a Wickes class destroyer that was commissioned too late to see service in the First World War, but that served with the Royal Navy in the Second World War as HMS Newark.

USS McKean (DD-90/ APD-5) was a Wickes class destroyer that entered service too late for the First World War, but that served in the Solomon Islands campaign of the Second World War as a fast transport, before being sunk off Bougainville.

USS Harding (DD-91) was a Wickes class destroyer that had a brief interwar career, mainly as a seaplane tender, before being decommissioned on 1922.

USS Gridley (DD-92) was a Wickes class destroyer that had a brief career after the First World War, most notably supporting the first successful transatlantic flight during 1919.

The Supermarine Scarab was an amphibian reconnaissance and bombing aircraft, produced in 1924 for the Spanish Navy.

The Supermarine Scylla was a flying boat originally designed to replace the Felixstowe F.5, but that was eventually used for taxing trials only.

The Supermarine Sheldrake was an amphibian aircraft produced for the British Air Ministry, but only one was ever built.

The Supermarine Swan was designed as a civilian airline, but the sole example was completed as a military reconnaissance aircraft.

Boulton Paul Aircraft

The Boulton Paul P.103 was a design for a naval fighter based on the Defiant turret fighter.

The Boulton Paul P.104 was a design for a pusher naval fighter produced in response to Specification N.7/43.

The Boulton Paul P.105 was a design for a multi-use naval attack aircraft.

The Boulton Paul P.106 was a design for an elementary training aircraft, but that lost out to the Percival Prentice.

The Heavy Tank M6 (Heavy Tank T1) was the first American heavy tank to come close to production during the Second World War, but was rejected by the Armored Force and only a handful were ever completed.

The Heavy Tank M45 was a howitzer armed version of the M26 Pershing tank, originally developed as the T26E2

The Heavy Tank T28/ 105mm Gun Motor carriage T95 was a heavily armoured vehicle that was designed to attack fortified positions.

The Heavy Tank T30 was developed in response to the appearance of heavier German tanks in 1943-44, and was armed with a 155mm gun.

The Heavy Tank T32 was an attempt to quickly produce a heavy tank based on the T26E3 version of the Pershing, and was the first of several contemporary designs for heavy tanks to reach the pilot stage.

The Heavy Tank T34 was based on the Heavy Tank T29 and Heavy Tank T30, and was armed with a modified 120mm anti-aircraft gun. It didn’t enter production, but the post-war Heavy Tank M103 was largely based on it.

The Mongol Conquests - The Military Operations of Genghis Khan and Sübe'etei, Carl Fredrik Sverdrup.
A detailed examination of the campaigns of the two greatest Mongol military leaders, using a wide range of sources, including previously un-translated Chinese materials. Gives a clear picture of the true nature of the Mongol conquests, from Genghis's own establishment of power in Mongolia to the invasions of Western Europe and northern China. Not always the easiest of reads (mainly because of the complexity of the story), but a very valuable contribution to our understanding of the rise of the Mongols.
[baca ulasan lengkap]

Merchant Seafaring Through World War 1 - 1914-1918, Peter Lyon.
Looks at the fate of British merchant seaman during the periods of German surface raiding and the U-boat war. Rather firmly takes sides, with a hostile view of the U-boat commanders and their tactics, although one that is supportable by the evidence provided. Contains a series of impressive tales of survival against the odds, as well as tracing the development of U-boat tactics and the British countermeasures.
[baca ulasan lengkap]

Eropa: Chained by History, Larry J. Hilton.
A generally well meaning book looking at the history of Europe, and suggesting that a truly united Europe is the continent's best chance for a safe and prosperous future, somewhat marred by a series of minor historical errors that rather niggle (including Vienna's attempt to claim Mozart as a native son). Includes a very strong examination of hyper inflation and the rise of anti-Semitism in Vienna, a dark shadow that marred an otherwise impressive city
[baca ulasan lengkap]

T-64 Battle Tank - The Cold War's Most Secret Tank, Steven J. Zaloga.
A brief history of a tank that was too advanced for its own good, combining advanced features that meant it couldn't be exported with an unreliable engine that made it unsuited for service with the Red Army for many years after it first appeared. The limited service life of the T-64 allows the author to focus on the complex and troubled development process, giving us an interesting picture of the way tank development worked in the Soviet Union
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Special Operations South-East Asia 1942-1945: Minerva, Baldhead and Longshanks/ Creek, David Miller.
Focuses on three Special Forces operations in South East Asia – a failed attempt to gather intelligence on Sumatra, a series of similar but successful operations on the Andaman Islands and a 'cutting out' operation conducted in the Portuguese enclave of Goa. These were three very different operations, and perhaps the only thing they have in common is that they are now hardly remembered, so this is a useful study of the three.
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Palestine - the Ottoman Campaigns of 1914-1918, Edward J. Erickson.
An interesting study of the Ottoman side of the Palestinian campaigns of 1915-1918, looking at the failed Ottoman attacks on the Suez canal, the first two unsuccessful British attacks on Gaza and Allenby's successful campaign that eventually forced the Ottomans to sue for peace. A useful book somewhat marred by the author's approach to the Armenian Genocide, which is briefly discussed as if it was a valid response to a major security threat instead of a deliberate genocide ordered from above.
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Picket's Charge at Gettysburg, James A. Hessler and Wayne E. Motts.
An excellent guide to the most famous Confederate attack on the third day at Gettysburg, combining four battlefield trails with a detailed examination of the attack itself, covering the impact of the terrain on both sides, the performance of individual units and commanders, and many of the controversies that have dogged the subject ever since the fighting stopped. The trails appear to make sense, but for me the main value of the book is its account of the Confederate attack, supported by a detailed knowledge of the landscape over which it took place
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Railway Guns of World War II, Steven J. Zaloga.
Although the heyday of the railway gun came during the First World War, the most famous example of the type, the massive German 80cm K(E) guns 'Dora' and 'Gustav', came from the Second World War. In reality these were useless vanity projects, but as this book makes clear every major combatant used a least a handful of railway guns during the Second World War. This book combines brief technical descriptions of each country's railway guns with a look at their combat service
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Valentine Infantry Tank 1938-45, Bruce Oliver Newsome.
Looks at the most numerous British tank of the Second World War, but one that only saw limited combat service, mainly in North Africa. Notable for the amount of information packed into a series of tables, including specifications and identifying features of the many versions of the Valentine, as well as the interesting material on the interior of the tank, how it was driven, and on the many special variants such as the Archer self -propelled gun, which carried its main gun pointing backwards.
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The Hindenburg Line, Patrick Osborn & Marc Romanych.
A good study of the full network of defences generally known in English as the Hindenburg Line, and which spread from the Channel coast to the St. Mihiel salient east of Verdun. Looks at the original purpose behind their construction, the actual shape they took on the ground, and how they performed under attack. Very useful to have a book that focuses on the entire length of this key German fortification
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Hitler's Nordic Ally? Finland and the Total War 1939-1945, Claes Johansen.
A wide ranging examination of Finland's two wars with the Soviet Union, the period leading up to the Winter War, the uneasy peace, and the aftermath of the wars, looking at the political debate within Finland, the fighting, and the wider impact of the war in the other Nordic countries. Especially interesting for the light it shines on the rather murky period between the two wars, where parts of the Finnish government entered into a de-facto alliance with Germany without the authority to do so, and on the varying Soviet aims.
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Normandia June 1944: The Night of Liberation, Gilles Vallée and Christophe Esquerré.
A heavily illustrated book that follows one stick of paratroops from the 3rd Battalion, 506th Parachute Infantry Regiment as they dropped behind Utah Beach on D-Day. A splendid educational publication that doesn't pull its punches, following a stick that saw its leader killed before reaching the ground, suffered heavy losses and fell into German hands almost immediately. Also follows the aircraft that flew them to Normandy and its aircrew.
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Preserved copies

As far as is known, only four IV assault guns have survived.

A StuG IV was excavated in 1999 near Bydgoszcz (Bromberg) and is in the "Orzel-Bialy" museum in Skarżysko-Kamienna, Poland . It is currently (as of July 2018) not on display, but is still in the process of restoration with the help of parts from other vehicles.

A second specimen was found near Poznan on the bottom of a river in 2006 and 2008 and was made roadworthy again. It is located there in the "Muzeum Broni Pancernej CSWL".

A third specimen was found in Russia in 2009-2010. The shell could be reconstructed with parts from other vehicles and can be seen today in the “Vadim Zadorozhny” Museum in Arkhangelskoye .

The fourth vehicle was recovered from a swamp in Latvia in 2011 and also reconstructed using parts from other vehicles. It is now part of the exhibition in the Military Vehicle Museum of the Hotel Sventes Muiža (Svente, Latvia).


Tonton videonya: Panzer IV Replica