Mantra Sihir Kuno untuk Menangkap Pemangsa Jahat Ditemukan di Turki

Mantra Sihir Kuno untuk Menangkap Pemangsa Jahat Ditemukan di Turki


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Penemuan mantra magis yang berusia 2800 tahun telah diumumkan oleh para ahli. Itu ditemukan di sebuah situs di barat daya Turki dan ditulis dalam bahasa Aram kuno. Mantra itu merujuk pada makhluk misterius yang dikenal sebagai 'pemakan'. Ini menawarkan para peneliti pandangan unik tentang praktik sihir di Timur Dekat Kuno dan pentingnya dalam masyarakat dari hampir tiga milenium yang lalu.

Live Science melaporkan bahwa mantera itu ditemukan di sebuah situs yang dikenal sebagai Zincirli, yang dikenal sebagai Sam'al di zaman kuno. Ini adalah kota yang didirikan oleh orang Het dan kemudian menjadi ibu kota negara bagian Aram kecil yang berkembang kira-kira dari 900 hingga 700 SM. laporan. Namun, ia kehilangan arti pentingnya setelah ditaklukkan oleh Kekaisaran Asyur sekitar tahun 700 SM.

Relief dari benteng Sam'al (Zincirli), 730 SM (Richard Mortel / Flickr)

Mantra itu ditemukan terukir pada wadah batu kosmetik yang digunakan kembali di tempat yang diduga sebagai kuil, selama penggalian, yang dilakukan oleh para arkeolog Jerman dan Amerika. Temuan itu diumumkan oleh Madadh Richey dan Dennis Pardee pada pertemuan tahunan Society of Biblical Literature.

Mantra Aram Kuno Menjelaskan 'Pemakan' yang Membawa 'Api' ke Korban https://t.co/8He7MSJlnx pic.twitter.com/zEQjB7lnWE

— Live Science (@LiveScience) 20 Desember 2018

Penyihir Rahim

Mantra itu rupanya ditulis oleh seorang praktisi mantra dan sihir. Dia adalah seorang ahli dalam doa dan dia disebut "Rahim, putra Shadadan." Berdasarkan studi tentang bahasa Aram yang digunakan dalam teks, itu ditulis sekitar tahun 850 SM. Ini akan menjadikannya 'mantera bahasa Aram paling kuno yang ditemukan para arkeolog hingga saat ini', lapor Inquistir.

Mantera Rahim menggambarkan ketakutan monster atau makhluk yang dikenal sebagai 'pelahap'. Binatang ini mampu menghasilkan atau memancarkan api dan tampaknya itu merupakan ancaman bagi individu. Mantra itu tampaknya digunakan untuk menyembuhkan mereka yang menderita oleh api makhluk itu.

Darah binatang yang ditangkap itu digunakan untuk menyembuhkan mereka yang terkena api 'pelahap'. Bagaimana darah itu digunakan untuk mengobati korban makhluk itu tidak diketahui. Menurut Richey, tidak diketahui apakah ''darah itu diberikan kepada orang yang menderita dalam ramuan yang bisa ditelan atau dioleskan ke tubuh mereka'' menurut Live Science.

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Mantra Rahim menggambarkan ketakutan monster atau makhluk yang dikenal sebagai 'pemakan' ( Erica Guilane-Nachez / Adobe Stock)

Pesona Melawan Kalajengking?

Mantra itu disertai dengan beberapa gambar atau ilustrasi yang tergores kasar yang muncul di kedua sisi artefak batu. Apa yang mereka wakili adalah masalah dugaan, tetapi mereka mungkin menunjukkan kelabang, kalajengking, dan mungkin juga beberapa jenis ikan. Hal ini menyebabkan beberapa spekulasi bahwa 'pelahap' mungkin kalajengking atau bahkan kelabang dan bahwa 'api' adalah sengatan yang menyakitkan.

Secara kebetulan, setelah wadah berisi mantra dilepas, salah satu anggota tim lokal disengat kalajengking parah dan membutuhkan perawatan darurat.

Pesona itu bertanggal sekitar 9 th abad SM, tetapi ditemukan di sebuah bangunan atau kuil yang mungkin dibangun hingga 100 tahun kemudian. Ini berarti bahwa itu disimpan untuk jangka waktu yang cukup lama dan ini menunjukkan bahwa itu dihormati oleh penduduk Sam'al dan disimpan lama setelah Rahim, penyihir itu mati. Tampaknya penduduk setempat percaya bahwa mantra itu terus memiliki kekuatan khusus. Di dalam bangunan, patung kecil singa juga ditemukan, dan bertanggal sekitar 900 SM. Mungkin pernah memegang sosok dewa atau dewi.

Artefak batu dengan mantra membantu para ahli untuk memiliki pemahaman yang lebih baik tentang pentingnya sihir. Mantra-mantera yang dianggap manjur itu dilestarikan di kuil-kuil atau tempat-tempat khusus dan ini menunjukkan status ilmu gaib dalam masyarakat Aram. Penemuan ini juga memungkinkan para peneliti untuk membandingkan praktik Aram dengan praktik masyarakat kuno lainnya dan ini dapat membantu kita memahami kepercayaan Timur Dekat Kuno hampir 3000 tahun yang lalu.


Surveyor di kota Serbia Kostolac telah menemukan tanah pemakaman yang terlupakan yang mengingatkan kejayaan Viminacium sebelumnya, sebuah pos terdepan Romawi dari abad keempat SM yang pada puncaknya memiliki 40.000 penduduk.

Situs itu menyemburkan beberapa kerangka berusia 2.000 tahun dan juga dua jimat timah yang membingungkan. Di dalam jimat, mereka menemukan gulungan emas dan perak yang sangat kecil. Biasanya disebut sebagai &ldquocurse tablet,&rdquo mantra semacam itu umumnya memanggil kekuatan dunia lain untuk memengaruhi atau menimpa teman, keluarga, atau musuh kastor.

Kehadiran gulungan ajaib saja menunjukkan bahwa pembawa jimat meninggal dengan kematian yang mengerikan. Arcana semacam itu dikubur dengan orang-orang yang dibunuh dengan kejam, karena diyakini bahwa jiwa-jiwa yang tersiksa kemungkinan besar akan bertemu dengan perantara iblis yang menyampaikan pesan ke kantor duniawi yang lebih tinggi.

Sayangnya, tidak mungkin gulungan khusus ini akan diuraikan dalam waktu dekat. Berkat pertemuan budaya yang tidak nyaman, alfabetnya adalah bahasa Yunani tetapi bahasanya adalah bahasa Aram, menawarkan kacang linguistik yang tampaknya tidak dapat dipecahkan.


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Sejarah Singkat Jin atau Jin

Jin (juga disebut jin atau genii) adalah roh dalam budaya Timur Tengah dan Afrika. Syarat jin berasal dari bahasa arab jin, yang mengacu pada roh jahat yang bisa berbentuk binatang atau orang. Itu dapat ditemukan di setiap jenis benda mati, bahkan udara dan api. Jin (jamak dari jinni) dikatakan memiliki kekuatan magis dan merupakan tokoh favorit dalam literatur Islam. Bagi orang Mende di Sierra Leone di Afrika, genii adalah roh yang kadang-kadang mencoba merasuki manusia hidup. Mende menggunakan sihir untuk melawan genii yang memasuki kehidupan.

Di Roma kuno, istilah jin, bentuk jamak dari bahasa latin kata jenius, mengacu pada roh yang mengawasi setiap orang. Jenius bertanggung jawab untuk membentuk karakter seorang pria dan menyebabkan semua tindakan. Diyakini hadir saat lahir, jenius dianggap sebagai kemampuan bawaan yang hebat. Wanita memiliki semangat serupa yang dikenal sebagai seorang juno. Beberapa orang Romawi juga percaya pada roh, yang disebut jenius jahat, yang melawan jenius yang baik untuk mengendalikan nasib seorang pria. Dalam mitologi Romawi kemudian, genii adalah roh yang menjaga rumah tangga atau komunitas.

Bagi orang Semit kuno, jin adalah roh orang-orang kuno yang menghilang yang bertindak pada malam hari dan menghilang dengan cahaya fajar yang pertama, mereka dapat membuat diri mereka tidak terlihat atau berubah bentuk menjadi binatang sesuka hati, roh-roh ini biasanya bertanggung jawab atas penyakit dan maniak beberapa orang gila yang mengklaim bahwa mereka disiksa oleh jin. Orang-orang Arab percaya bahwa jin adalah roh api, meskipun kadang-kadang mereka mengasosiasikannya dengan succubi, setan dalam bentuk wanita cantik, yang mengunjungi pria pada malam hari untuk bersanggama dengan mereka sampai mereka kelelahan, menarik energi dari pertemuan mereka.

Banyak Muslim kemungkinan akan melihat istilah "mitologis" sebagai pernyataan merendahkan karena secara tradisional mereka percaya bahwa jin adalah makhluk nyata. Jin dikatakan sebagai makhluk dengan kehendak bebas, terbuat dari api tanpa asap oleh Tuhan, sama seperti manusia diciptakan dari tanah. Dalam Al-Qur'an, jin sering disebutkan dan bahkan Surat 72: Al-Jin sepenuhnya tentang mereka. Bahkan Muhammad dikatakan telah diutus sebagai nabi untuk “manusia dan jin”.

Jin jangan disamakan dengan Karin yang disebutkan dalam Al-Qur'an dalam Surat An-Nas dan dalam mitologi Islam. Kareen adalah roh jahat, sementara secara teknis jin dianggap setan, berniat menipu orang untuk melakukan dosa, mirip dengan setan pribadi. Karena mereka unik untuk setiap individu, Kareen akan menjadi orang yang dipanggil oleh pesulap setelah kematian seseorang, seperti dalam séance, karena jiwa pergi kepada Tuhan dan Kareen yang nakal akan tetap berada di bumi dan akan, sesuai dengan sifatnya yang jahat. , menyamar sebagai almarhum yang karakternya dia kenal. Islam sangat melarang sihir. Muslim Ortodoks Namun, membaca berbagai ayat dari Al-Qur'an seperti Ayat Tahta, Surat an-Nas dan Suart al-Falaq sebagai sarana perlindungan dan doa. Dalam mitologi yang berhubungan dengan Islam, jin dikatakan dapat dikendalikan dengan mengikat mereka secara ajaib ke benda-benda, seperti yang paling terkenal dilakukan oleh Sulaiman dalam kisah Aladdin adalah jin yang terikat pada lampu minyak.

Dalam buku-buku sihir Jin diklasifikasikan menjadi empat ras setelah elemen klasik Bumi, Udara, Api dan Air. Dalam ras itu mereka datang dalam suku, biasanya tujuh, masing-masing dengan raja, masing-masing raja mengendalikan sukunya dan dikendalikan oleh Malaikat, sedangkan nama Malaikat adalah siksaan bagi raja jin dan juga sukunya, sama seperti Yesus. ' nama untuk iblis selama eksorsisme. Tidak seperti penyihir putih dan penyihir jahat, jin memiliki kehendak bebas namun dapat dipaksa untuk melakukan tindakan baik dan jahat, dibandingkan dengan iblis yang hanya akan menyakiti makhluk atau malaikat dengan niat baik. Mengetahui apa yang harus ditanyakan roh apa yang harus dilakukan adalah kuncinya karena meminta roh untuk melakukan tugas melawan kecenderungan alaminya akan membuat roh marah dan membalas terhadap penyihir.


Isi

Jin adalah kata benda kolektif Arab yang berasal dari akar kata Semit JNN (Arab: / , jann), yang arti utamanya adalah 'bersembunyi' atau 'beradaptasi'. Beberapa penulis menafsirkan kata itu secara harfiah berarti 'makhluk yang tersembunyi dari indra'. [7] Bahasa serumpun termasuk bahasa Arab Majnn ( ‎, 'kerasukan' atau, umumnya, 'gila'), jannah ( ‎, 'taman', 'eden' atau 'surga'), dan jann ( , 'embrio'). [8] Jin diperlakukan dengan benar sebagai jamak (namun dalam bahasa Arab Klasik, mungkin juga muncul sebagai janni, انّ ‎), dengan wujud tunggal jinī ( ). [B]

Asal kata jin tetap tidak pasti. [2] Beberapa ulama menghubungkan istilah Arab jin ke bahasa latin jenius—roh penjaga orang-orang dan tempat-tempat dalam agama Romawi—sebagai akibat dari sinkretisme pada masa pemerintahan kekaisaran Romawi di bawah Tiberius dan Augustus [9] namun, derivasi ini juga diperdebatkan. [10] Saran lain menyatakan bahwa jin mungkin berasal dari bahasa Aram ginnaya (Syria Klasik: ‎) dengan arti 'dewa penjaga' [11] atau 'penjaga'. Yang lain mengklaim bahwa kata tersebut berasal dari bahasa Persia, dalam bentuk Avestic Jaini, roh jahat (perempuan). Jaini termasuk di antara berbagai makhluk dalam mitologi bahkan mungkin pra-Zoroaster masyarakat Iran. [12] [13]

Bentuk yang di-inggriskan jin adalah pinjaman dari bahasa Prancis jin, juga dari bahasa Latin jenius. Ini pertama kali muncul [14] dalam terjemahan abad ke-18 dari Seribu Satu Malam dari Perancis, [15] di mana ia telah digunakan karena kesamaan kasar dalam suara dan rasa dan selanjutnya berlaku untuk roh perantara yang baik hati, berbeda dengan roh jahat yang disebut 'setan' dan 'malaikat surgawi', dalam literatur. [16] Dalam seni Asyur, makhluk yang secara ontologis antara manusia dan dewa disebut juga jin. [17]

Asal usul yang tepat dari kepercayaan pada jin tidak sepenuhnya jelas. [19] Beberapa cendekiawan dari Timur Tengah berpendapat bahwa mereka berasal dari roh jahat yang tinggal di padang pasir dan tempat-tempat najis, yang sering mengambil bentuk binatang [19] yang lain berpendapat bahwa mereka pada awalnya adalah dewa alam pagan yang secara bertahap menjadi terpinggirkan karena dewa-dewa lain mengambil kepentingan yang lebih besar. [19] Namun, jin telah disembah oleh banyak orang Arab selama periode Pra-Islam, [20] meskipun, tidak seperti dewa, jin tidak dianggap abadi.

Meskipun kematian mereka menempatkan mereka lebih rendah daripada dewa, tampaknya pemujaan jin lebih penting dalam kehidupan sehari-hari orang Arab pra-Islam daripada dewa itu sendiri. Menurut kepercayaan umum Arab, peramal, filsuf pra-Islam, dan penyair terinspirasi oleh jin. [20] [19] Budaya dan masyarakat mereka analog dengan budaya Arab pra-Islam, dengan para pemimpin suku, melindungi sekutu mereka dan membalas pembunuhan untuk setiap anggota suku atau sekutu mereka. Meskipun kekuatan jin melebihi manusia, bisa dibayangkan seorang pria bisa membunuh jin dalam satu pertempuran. Jin dianggap berubah menjadi bentuk yang berbeda, tetapi ditakuti terutama dalam bentuk yang tidak terlihat, karena mereka dapat menyerang tanpa terlihat. [21] Jin juga ditakuti karena dianggap bertanggung jawab atas berbagai penyakit dan penyakit mental. [22] [19] Julius Wellhausen mengamati bahwa roh-roh seperti itu dianggap menghuni tempat-tempat terpencil, suram, dan gelap dan mereka ditakuti. [23] Seseorang harus melindungi diri dari mereka, tetapi mereka bukanlah objek dari kultus sejati. [23]

Beberapa ulama berpendapat bahwa malaikat dan setan diperkenalkan oleh Nabi Muhammad ke Arab dan tidak ada di antara jin. Di sisi lain, Amira El-Zein berpendapat bahwa malaikat dikenal oleh orang-orang Arab pagan, tetapi istilah jin digunakan untuk semua jenis entitas supernatural di antara berbagai agama dan kultus sehingga, malaikat dan setan Zoroaster, Kristen, dan Yahudi digabungkan dengan 'jin'. [20] Al-Jahiz memuji orang-orang Arab pra-Islam dengan keyakinan bahwa masyarakat jin terdiri dari beberapa suku dan kelompok dan beberapa peristiwa alam dikaitkan dengan mereka, seperti badai. Mereka juga berpikir jin bisa melindungi, menikah, menculik, memiliki dan membunuh orang. [24]

Dalam Kitab Suci Sunting

Jin disebutkan sekitar 29 kali dalam Al-Qur'an. [25] Dalam tradisi Islam, Muhammad diutus sebagai nabi untuk komunitas manusia dan jin, dan para nabi dan rasul diutus untuk kedua komunitas tersebut. [26] [27] Secara tradisional Quran 72, dinamai menurut mereka (Al-Jinn), diadakan untuk menceritakan tentang wahyu kepada jin dan beberapa cerita menyebutkan salah satu pengikut Muhammad menemaninya, menyaksikan wahyu kepada jin. [28] Dalam kisah Salomo mereka muncul sebagai roh alam yang sebanding dengan shedim Talmud. [29] Salomo dikaruniai Tuhan untuk berbicara dengan binatang dan roh. Tuhan memberinya otoritas atas jin dan setan pemberontak yang memaksa mereka untuk membangun Kuil Pertama. Dalam contoh lain, Quran menceritakan tentang orang-orang Arab Pagan, memanggil jin untuk meminta bantuan, bukan Tuhan. Al-Qur'an menurunkan status jin dari dewa penjaga menjadi makhluk halus, biasanya sejajar dengan manusia. [30] Dalam hal ini, jin sering muncul berpasangan dengan manusia. Untuk menegaskan monoteisme yang ketat dan konsep Islam Tauhid, semua hubungan antara jin dan Tuhan ditolak, sehingga jin ditempatkan sejajar dengan manusia, juga tunduk pada penghakiman Tuhan dan kehidupan setelah kematian. Mereka juga disebutkan dalam kumpulan hadits kanonik. Menurut riwayat hadits, jin makan seperti manusia, tetapi bukannya makanan segar, mereka lebih memilih daging dan tulang yang busuk. [31] [32] Satu hadits membagi mereka menjadi tiga kelompok, dengan satu jenis jin yang terbang di udara, yang lain adalah ular dan anjing, dan yang ketiga bergerak dari satu tempat ke tempat lain seperti manusia. [33] Catatan ini sejajar dengan jin dengan manusia, mirip dengan Al-Qur'an, sebagaimana hadits lain membagi manusia menjadi tiga kelompok, dengan satu jenis seperti binatang berkaki empat, yang dikatakan tidak mengetahui pesan Tuhan dan yang kedua adalah di bawah perlindungan Tuhan dan yang terakhir dengan tubuh manusia, tetapi jiwa setan (syaitan). [34]

Eksegesis Sunting

Percaya pada jin tidak termasuk di antara enam pasal iman Islam, seperti kepercayaan pada malaikat, namun banyak cendekiawan Muslim percaya itu penting untuk iman Islam. [35] [36] Dalam penafsiran Al-Qur'an, istilah jin dapat digunakan dengan dua cara yang berbeda:

  1. sebagai entitas yang tidak terlihat, dicatat dalam surahAr-Rahman dalam Al-Qur'an, yang menjelajahi bumi sebelum Adam, diciptakan oleh Allah dari "api dan udara" [37][38] (Arab: ارِجٍ نَّار ‎, mārijin min nār). Mereka diyakini menyerupai manusia dalam hal mereka makan dan minum, memiliki anak dan mati, dan tunduk pada penghakiman, dikirim ke surga atau neraka sesuai dengan perbuatan mereka [39] namun, mereka juga jauh lebih cepat dan lebih kuat daripada manusia. [40] Jin ini berbeda dari suku malaikat yang disebutkan dalam surah Al-Kahfi yang disebut Al-jinn, dinamai Jannah ('Taman'), makhluk surgawi yang diciptakan dari api sama (Arab: ‎, 'api beracun')—berlawanan dengan genus jin, yang diciptakan dari campuran api—yang mengobarkan perang melawan genus jin dan dianggap mampu berbuat dosa, tidak seperti rekan mereka yang diciptakan dengan cahaya. [41][42]
  2. sebagai kebalikan dari al-Ins (sesuatu dalam bentuk) mengacu pada objek apa pun yang tidak dapat dideteksi oleh organ indera manusia, termasuk malaikat, iblis, dan bagian dalam manusia. Dengan demikian, setiap iblis dan setiap malaikat juga adalah jin, tetapi tidak setiap jin adalah malaikat atau iblis. [43][44][45][46]Al-Jahiz mengkategorikan jin dalam karyanya Kitab al-Hayawan sebagai berikut: "Jika dia murni, bersih, tidak tersentuh oleh kekotoran apa pun, karena sepenuhnya baik, dia adalah seorang malaikat, jika dia tidak setia, tidak jujur, bermusuhan, jahat, dia adalah iblis, jika dia berhasil mendukung sebuah bangunan, mengangkat sebuah beban berat dan mendengarkan di pintu Surga dia adalah seorang marid dan jika dia lebih dari ini, dia adalah seorang ifrit." [47]

Terkait dengan tradisi umum, malaikat diciptakan pada hari Rabu, jin pada hari Kamis, dan manusia pada hari Jumat, meskipun tidak berurutan, melainkan masing-masing lebih dari 1000 tahun kemudian. [48] ​​Komunitas ras jin seperti manusia, tetapi kemudian korupsi dan ketidakadilan di antara mereka meningkat dan semua peringatan yang dikirim oleh Tuhan diabaikan. Akibatnya, Allah mengirim malaikat-Nya untuk memerangi jin kafir. Hanya beberapa yang selamat, dan diusir ke pulau-pulau yang jauh atau ke pegunungan. Dengan turunnya Islam, jin diberi kesempatan baru untuk mengakses keselamatan. [33] [49] [50] Namun, karena penciptaan mereka sebelumnya, jin akan menganggap diri mereka superior atas manusia dan iri kepada mereka karena tempat dan peringkat mereka di bumi. [51] Jin yang berbeda yang dikenal dalam cerita rakyat Islam diabaikan di antara kebanyakan mufassir—penulis tafsir—Tabari menjadi pengecualian (walaupun dia tidak spesifik tentang mereka, mungkin karena kurangnya signifikansi teologis). Karena Tabari adalah salah satu komentator paling awal, beberapa jin telah dikenal, sejak tahap awal Islam. [52]

Era klasik Sunting

Meskipun Al-Qur'an mengurangi status jin dari dewa-dewa penjaga menjadi hanya roh, ditempatkan sejajar dengan manusia, tunduk pada penghakiman Tuhan dan proses kehidupan, kematian dan kehidupan setelah kematian, mereka tidak disamakan dengan setan. [53]

Penyebaran dari Arab Sunting

Ketika Islam menyebar ke luar Arabia, kepercayaan pada jin berasimilasi dengan kepercayaan lokal tentang roh dan dewa dari Iran, Afrika, Turki dan India. [54]

Terjemahan Persia awal Quran mengidentifikasi jin baik dengan peris atau divs [33] tergantung pada perilaku moral mereka. Namun, identifikasi jin dengan roh budaya lain seperti itu tidak universal. Beberapa roh pra-Islam tetap ada. Peri dan div sering dibuktikan berbeda dari jin di antara pengetahuan Muslim Persia [55] (dan juga pengetahuan Muslim Turki), [56] tetapi karena baik div maupun jin dikaitkan dengan iblis dan kemampuan untuk mengubah diri mereka sendiri, mereka tumpang tindih kadang-kadang. [57]

Di Sindh, konsep jin diperkenalkan ketika Islam diterima. Sejak itu, jin telah menjadi bagian umum dari cerita rakyat setempat, juga termasuk cerita dari kedua jin laki-laki yang disebut jin dan jin perempuan disebut Jiniri. Cerita rakyat jin perempuan termasuk cerita seperti Jejhal Jiniri. Sementara, karena pengaruh budaya, konsep jin dapat bervariasi, semua memiliki beberapa kesamaan. Jin diyakini hidup dalam masyarakat yang menyerupai manusia, menjalankan agama (termasuk Islam, Kristen dan Yudaisme), memiliki emosi, perlu makan dan minum, dan dapat berkembang biak dan membesarkan keluarga. Selain itu, mereka takut besi, umumnya muncul di tempat terpencil atau ditinggalkan, dan lebih kuat dan lebih cepat dari manusia. [33] Sejak jin berbagi bumi dengan manusia, umat Islam sering berhati-hati untuk tidak sengaja menyakiti jin yang tidak bersalah dengan mengucapkan "destur" (izin), sebelum memercikkan air panas. [33] [58] [59] Umumnya, jin dianggap memakan tulang dan lebih memilih daging busuk daripada daging segar. [60]

Terutama Maroko memiliki banyak tradisi kerasukan, termasuk ritual pengusiran setan, [61] meskipun faktanya, kemampuan jin untuk merasuki manusia tidak disebutkan secara langsung dalam kitab suci Islam kanonik. Jin tidak bisa memasuki seseorang kapanpun jin menginginkannya, melainkan korbannya harus cenderung kerasukan dalam keadaan dha'iyfah (Arab: ضعيفة, "kelemahan"). Perasaan tidak aman, ketidakstabilan mental, cinta yang tidak bahagia dan depresi (menjadi "lelah dari jiwa") adalah bentuk dari dha'iyfah. [62]

Muslim Jawa memiliki kepercayaan yang sama tentang jin yang mendiami tempat-tempat yang sepi dan angker dan mungkin memiliki atau menakut-nakuti orang, yang menginjak-injak rumah mereka atau secara tidak sengaja membunuh jin yang terkait ketika jin tersebut berwujud binatang. Dalam beberapa kasus, jin bahkan mungkin membalas dendam dengan menimbulkan kerusakan fisik. Lebih lanjut diakui bahwa jin dapat menjadi baik dan jahat. Yang baik hati disebut jin islam, yang saleh dan setia, dan yang terakhir disebut jin kafir. Jin jahat mengikuti pengaruh setan (shayatin). Jin yang baik bahkan mungkin membantu seorang Muslim untuk melakukan kerja keras dan menghasilkan tindakan magis. [63]

Dalam kepercayaan lisan Artas (Betlehem), jin membentuk masyarakat di bawah tanah. Karena iri pada manusia, mereka sering naik ke permukaan, menyebabkan penyakit pada anak-anak, merampas makanan dan membalas dendam ketika manusia memperlakukan mereka dengan buruk. Beberapa jin tetap baik hati terhadap manusia, mengajarkan manusia pelajaran moral. [64]

Dalam budaya Mughal atau Urdu, jin sering muncul sebagai karakter gemuk dan menyebut tuan mereka sebagai "Aqa."

Dalam pengetahuan Albania kemudian, jin (Xhindi) hidup di bumi atau di bawah permukaan dan mungkin merasuki orang-orang yang menghina mereka, misalnya jika anak-anak mereka diinjak atau disiram air panas. [65]

Konsep jin juga lazim di masyarakat Ottoman dan banyak tentang kepercayaan mereka belum diketahui.

Dalam pengetahuan Turki, jin (Turki: Cin) sering dipasangkan dengan di dalam, entitas setan lain, berbagi banyak karakteristik dengan jin. [66] Sumber-sumber Turki menggambarkan jin sebagai makhluk yang dapat menyebabkan penyakit, gangguan mental dan kelumpuhan tidur. Karena detak jantung mereka yang membuat mereka tidak terlihat, mereka akan meninggalkan mayat ketika dibunuh. [67]

Debat Sunting

Komposisi dan keberadaan jin adalah subyek dari berbagai perdebatan selama Abad Pertengahan. Menurut Al-Shafi'i (pendiri sekolah Syafi'i), tembus pandang jin sangat pasti bahwa siapa pun yang berpikir mereka telah melihat seseorang tidak memenuhi syarat untuk memberikan kesaksian hukum-kecuali mereka adalah seorang Nabi. [68] Menurut Ashari, keberadaan jin tidak dapat dibuktikan, karena argumen tentang keberadaan jin berada di luar pemahaman manusia. Para ahli teologi Asyari menjelaskan jin tidak terlihat oleh manusia, karena mereka tidak memiliki organ indera yang tepat untuk membayangkan mereka. [69] Skeptis berpendapat, meragukan keberadaan jin, jika jin ada, tubuh mereka harus halus atau terbuat dari bahan padat jika mereka terdiri dari yang pertama, mereka tidak akan mampu melakukan kerja keras, seperti membawa batu berat. Jika mereka terdiri dari yang terakhir, mereka akan terlihat oleh manusia mana pun dengan mata fungsional. [70] Oleh karena itu, orang-orang skeptis menolak untuk percaya pada pembacaan literal tentang jin dalam teks-teks suci Islam, lebih memilih untuk melihat mereka sebagai "pria nakal" atau metafora. [33] Di sisi lain, para pendukung kepercayaan pada jin menegaskan bahwa ciptaan Tuhan dapat melampaui pikiran manusia sehingga jin berada di luar pemahaman manusia. Karena mereka disebutkan dalam teks-teks Islam, para sarjana seperti Ibn Taimiyya dan Ibn Hazm melarang penyangkalan jin. Mereka juga merujuk pada roh dan setan di antara orang-orang Kristen, Zoroaster dan Yahudi untuk "membuktikan" keberadaan mereka. [70] Ibn Taymiyya percaya jin pada umumnya "bodoh, tidak jujur, menindas, dan pengkhianat". Dia berpendapat bahwa jin bertanggung jawab atas sebagian besar "keajaiban" yang dirasakan oleh manusia, bekerja sama dengan penyihir untuk mengangkat barang di udara, menyampaikan kebenaran tersembunyi kepada peramal, dan meniru suara manusia yang telah meninggal selama pemanggilan arwah. [71]

Kritikus lain, seperti Jahiz dan Mas'udi, mengaitkan penampakan jin dengan penyebab psikologis. Menurut Mas'udi, jin seperti yang dijelaskan oleh ulama tradisional, tidak sebuah prioritas palsu, tapi tidak mungkin. Jahiz menyatakan dalam karyanya Kitāb al-Hayawān bahwa kesepian mendorong manusia ke dalam permainan pikiran dan angan-angan, menyebabkan waswas (Bahasa Arab: اس , 'bisikan setan dalam pikiran', secara tradisional dianggap disebabkan oleh Setan). Jika dia takut, dia mungkin melihat hal-hal yang tidak nyata. Penampakan yang diduga ini diceritakan kepada generasi lain dalam cerita dan puisi sebelum tidur, dan dengan anak-anak dari generasi berikutnya yang tumbuh dengan cerita seperti itu, ketika mereka takut atau kesepian, mereka mengingat cerita ini, mendorong imajinasi mereka dan menyebabkan dugaan penampakan jin lainnya. Namun, Jahiz kurang kritis terhadap jin dan setan dibandingkan Mas'udi, menyatakan fantasi manusia setidaknya mendorong orang untuk membayangkan makhluk seperti itu. [72] Futūḥāt al-Makkiyyah, dikaitkan dengan Sufi terkenal Syaikh Ibn Arabi, mendamaikan keberadaan literal jin dengan imajiner, menggambarkan penampilan jin sebagai refleksi dari pengamat dan tempat mereka ditemukan. Mereka berbeda dari para malaikat, yang karena kedekatan mereka dengan surga mencerminkan bidang-bidang ketuhanan, terutama dalam jarak mereka ke bumi dan langit, dengan menyatakan: "Hanya ini yang berbeda: Roh jin adalah roh yang lebih rendah, sedangkan roh malaikat adalah roh surgawi". [73] Jin berbagi, karena tempat tinggal perantara mereka baik sifat malaikat dan manusia. Karena jin lebih dekat dengan alam materi, maka manusia akan lebih mudah menghubungi jin daripada malaikat. [74]

Dalam sastra rakyat Sunting

NS jin dapat ditemukan dalam berbagai cerita tentang Seribu Satu Malam, termasuk dalam:

  • "Nelayan dan Jin" [75]
  • "Ma'ruf si Tukang Sepatu": lebih dari tiga jenis jin yang berbeda dijelaskan [76][77]
  • "Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp": dua jin membantu Aladdin muda [78] dan
  • "Kisah Núr al-Dín Ali dan Putranya Badr ad-Dīn asan": saat asan Badr al-Dīn menangis di atas kuburan ayahnya sampai dia tertidur, dan dia dibangunkan oleh sekelompok besar jin yang simpatik. [79]

Dalam beberapa cerita, jin dikreditkan dengan kemampuan perjalanan instan (dari Cina ke Maroko dalam sekejap) di tempat lain, mereka perlu terbang dari satu tempat ke tempat lain, meskipun cukup cepat (dari Bagdad ke Kairo dalam beberapa jam).

Era modern dan pasca-modern Sunting

Pendekatan modernis Sunting

Ahmadi memaknai jin bukan sebagai makhluk gaib, melainkan sebagai manusia sakti yang pengaruhnya terasa meski menjaga jarak dari rakyat jelata. Menurut Mirza Tahir Ahmad, penyebutan jin bisa juga berarti mikroorganisme seperti bakteri dan virus. [80] Lainnya mencoba untuk mendamaikan perspektif tradisional tentang jin, dengan ilmu-ilmu modern. Fethullah Gülen, pemimpin gerakan Hizmet, telah mengajukan gagasan, bahwa jin dapat menjadi penyebab skizofrenia dan kanker dan bahwa referensi Al-Qur'an untuk jin pada "api tanpa asap" dalam hal ini dapat berarti "energi". [81] Lainnya, sementara tidak menerima hubungan antara penyakit dan jin, percaya pada keberadaan mereka, karena kemunculan mereka dalam Quran. [82] Banyak Modernis cenderung menolak kepercayaan jin sebagai takhayul yang menahan masyarakat Islam. [ kutipan diperlukan ] Referensi ke jin dalam Quran ditafsirkan dalam makna ambigu mereka tentang sesuatu yang tidak terlihat, dan mungkin kekuatan atau hanya malaikat. [83] Jika tidak, pentingnya kepercayaan pada jin untuk kepercayaan Islam dalam masyarakat Muslim kontemporer digarisbawahi oleh penilaian kemurtadan oleh pengadilan Syariah Mesir pada tahun 1995 terhadap teolog liberal Nasr Abu Zayd. [84] Abu Zayd dinyatakan kafir Islam karena—antara lain—berpendapat bahwa alasan kehadiran jin dalam Al-Qur'an adalah karena mereka (jin) adalah bagian dari budaya Arab pada saat diturunkannya Al-Qur'an, daripada bahwa mereka adalah bagian dari ciptaan Tuhan. [36] Ancaman pembunuhan menyebabkan Nasr Abu Zayd meninggalkan Mesir beberapa minggu kemudian. [Catatan 1]

Salafisme Sunting

Ajaran Salafi kontemporer Islam menolak interpretasi modern jin dan menganut literalisme, dengan alasan ancaman jin dan kemampuan mereka untuk memiliki manusia dapat dibuktikan dengan Quran dan Sunnah. [86] Namun, banyak Salafi berbeda dari pemahaman mereka tentang jin dari catatan sebelumnya. Fatwa yang dikeluarkan oleh ulama Salafi seringkali berulang kali merujuk pada pilihan ayat-ayat Al-Qur'an dan kutipan hadits, tanpa mengacu pada tradisi dan pengalaman individu tertentu. Beberapa berpendapat bahwa banyak tradisi dan kepercayaan di kalangan Muslim dikecualikan dari wacana teologis Salafi dan meremehkan keyakinan Muslim yang tertanam sebagai pengetahuan lokal, seperti gejala kerasukan jin. Pendapat dosen Muslim Saudi terkemuka Muhammad Al-Munajjid, seorang sarjana penting dalam Salafisme dan pendiri IslamQA, diulangi di beberapa sumber online, dan juga dikutip oleh IslamOnline dan Islamicity.com untuk informasi tentang jin, setan dan malaikat. Islamawareness.net dan IslamOnline serupa keduanya menampilkan artikel tentang jin yang ditulis oleh Fethullah Gulen, menggunakan pendekatan serupa untuk menafsirkan dunia spiritual. [87] Selanjutnya, tidak ada perbedaan yang dibuat antara setan dan jin, roh acuh tak acuh, seperti yang dinyatakan oleh ulama Salafi Umar Sulaiman Al-Ashqar, [88] bahwa setan sebenarnya hanyalah jin yang tidak percaya. Lebih lanjut Muhammad Al-Munajjid, menegaskan bahwa membaca berbagai ayat Alquran dan adhkaar (Tindakan kebaktian yang melibatkan pengulangan kalimat pendek memuliakan Tuhan) "ditetapkan dalam Syariah (hukum Islam)" dapat melindungi terhadap jin, [68] mengaitkan ritual penyembuhan Islam yang umum di seluruh budaya Islam dengan melalaikan (politeisme). [89] Untuk alasan itu, Arab Saudi, mengikuti tradisi Wahhabisme Salafisme, memberlakukan hukuman mati untuk berurusan dengan jin untuk mencegah sihir dan sihir. [90] [91] Meskipun tidak dianjurkan oleh beberapa ajaran Islam modern, keyakinan budaya tentang jin tetap populer di kalangan masyarakat Muslim dan pemahaman mereka tentang kosmologi dan antropologi. [92]

Penegasan tentang keberadaan jin sebagai makhluk berakal yang hidup bersama manusia masih tersebar luas di dunia Timur Tengah dan penyakit mental masih sering dikaitkan dengan kerasukan jin. [93]

Prevalensi keyakinan Sunting

According to a survey undertaken by the Pew Research Center in 2012, at least 86% in Morocco, 84% in Bangladesh, 63% in Turkey, 55% in Iraq, 53% in Indonesia, 47% in Thailand and 15% elsewhere in Central Asia, Muslims affirm the existence of jinn. The low rate in Central Asia might be influenced by Soviet religious oppression. [94]

Sleep paralysis is conceptualized as a "Jinn attack" by many sleep paralysis sufferers in Egypt as discovered by Cambridge neuroscientist Baland Jalal. [95] A scientific study found that as many as 48 percent of those who experience sleep paralysis in Egypt believe it to be an assault by the jinn. [95] Almost all of these sleep paralysis sufferers (95%) would recite verses from the Quran during sleep paralysis to prevent future "Jinn attacks". In addition, some (9%) would increase their daily Islamic prayer (salah) to get rid of these attacks by jinn. [95] Sleep paralysis is generally associated with great fear in Egypt, especially if believed to be supernatural in origin. [96]

However, despite belief in jinn being prevalent in Iran's folklore especially among the stronger believers of Islam, some phenomena such as sleep paralysis were traditionally attributed to other supernatural beings in the case of sleep paralysis, it was bakhtak (night hag). But at least in some areas of Iran, an epileptic seizure was thought to be a jinn attack or jinn possession, and people would try to exorcise the jinn by citing the name of Allah and using iron blades to draw protective circles around the victim. [97] Telling jinn stories and supposed encounter recounts were a common pastime of people, similar to telling ghost stories in western cultures, until a couple of decades ago when these stories drastically fell out of fashion with the increasing penetration of digital entertainments and modern recording equipment which undermined their credibility.

Post-modern literature and movies Edit

Jinn feature in the magical realism genre, introduced by Latife Tekin's "Sevgili Arsiz Ölüm" (Dear shameless Death) (1983) into Turkish literature. She combines magical elements known from Pre-Islamic and Islamic Anatolian lore which became prominent in Turkish literature since the 1980th. They combine parts of folkloric and religious beliefs with a rationalized society. The protagonist is a girl, which brefriends inanimate objects and several spirits, such as jinn and peri. While the existence of jinn is generally accepted by the people within the novel, when her familiy moves from Anatolia into the city, the jinn do not appear anymore. Nevertheless, the jinn are, as part of the Islamic religion, still accepted by people in the urban setting, as part of reality, however, they play no importance anymore for the modern life. The existence of jinn is accepted throughout the novel. However, when the novel transists to the city, they just do not bear any importance, probably depicting a transition point in which modernization substitutes traditions within the Anatolian immigrants. [98]

In modern Middle Eastern Horror movies, jinn are frequently the choice of monster. In Turkish Horror, jinn became popular since 2004. [99] Out of 89 films, 59 have direct references to jinn as the antagonist, 12 use other sorts of demons, while other types of horror, such as the impending apocalypse, hauntings or ghosts, constitute only of 14 films. [100] The presentation of jinn usually combines Quranic with oral and cultural beliefs about jinn. [100] Despite belittling the popular understanding of jinn by increasing influence of reformists, jinn appear similarly in Iranian Horror movies. [101]

Both Islamic and non-Islamic scholarship generally distinguishes between angels, jinn, and devils as three different types of spiritual entities in Islamic traditions. [102] [103]

The lines between devils and jinn are often blurred. Especially in folklore, jinn share many characteristics usually associated with devils, as both are held responsible for mental illness, diseases and possession. However, such traits do not appear within the Quran or canonical hadiths. The Quran emphasizes comparison between humans and jinn as taqalan ('accountable ones', in that they have free-will and will be judged according to their deeds). [104] [103] Since the devils are exclusively evil, they are not among taqalan, thus like angels, their destiny is prescribed. [105] The jinn share many characteristics with humans, whereas devils lack. [52] Folklore differentiates both types of creatures as well.

Field researches in 2001-2002, among Sunni Muslims in Syria, recorded many oral-tales about jinn. Tales about Satan (Iblīs) and his lesser devils (shayāṭīn) barely appeared, in contrast to tales about jinn, who featured frequently in everyday stories. It seems the devils are primarily associated with their role within Islamic scriptures, as abstract forces tempting Muslims into everything disapproved by society, while jinn can be encountered by humans in lonely places. [106] This fits the general notion that the devils whisper into the heart (qalb) of humans, but do not possess them physically. [107]

Since the term shaitan is also used as an epithet to describe the taqalan (humans and jinn), naming malevolent jinn also as shayāṭīn in some sources, it is sometimes difficult to hold them apart. [108] [109] Satan and his hosts of devils (shayatin) generally appear in traditions associated with Jewish and Christian narratives, while jinn represent entities of polytheistic background. [c]

Supernaturality Edit

Jinn are not supernatural in the sense of being purely spiritual and transcendent to nature while they are believed to be invisible (or often invisible) they also eat, drink, sleep, breed with the opposite sex, with offspring that resemble their parents. Intercourse is not limited to the jinn alone, but also possible between human and jinn. However, the practice is despised (makruh) in Islamic law. It is disputed whether or not such intercourse can result in offspring. They are "natural" in the classical philosophical sense by consisting of an element, undergoing change, and being bound in time and space. [111] They resemble spirits or devils in the sense of evading sensible perception, but are not of immaterial nature as Rūḥāniyya adalah. [112] Thus they interact in a tactile manner with people and objects. In scientific treatises the jinn are included and depicted as animals (hayawan) with a subtle body. [113] The Qanoon-e-Islam, written 1832 by Sharif Ja'far, writing about jinn-belief in India, states that their body constitutes 90% of spirit and 10% of flesh. [114] They resemble humans in many regards, their subtle matter being the only main difference. But it is this very nature that enables them to change their shape, move quickly, fly, and entering human bodies, cause epilepsy and illness, hence the temptation for humans to make them allies by means of magical practices. [115]

Unlike the jinn in later European understanding, jinn are not depicted as magical creatures. [116]

Penampilan Edit

The appearance of jinn can be divided into three major categories: [118]

Zoomorphic manifestation Edit

Jinn are assumed to be able to appear in shapes of various animals such as cats, owls and onagers (wild ass). [119]

Serpents are the animals most associated with jinn in Islamic tradition, many narratives concern a serpent who was actually a jinni. [120] The term jann refers to both a snake and jinn. [ menentukan ] The connection between jinn and serpents are strong enough that those who believe in jinn fear killing a serpent, believing that a jinn might avenge the murder. Other chthonic animals regarded as usual forms of jinn include scorpions and lizards, perhaps among others. Both scorpions and serpents have been venerated in the ancient Near East. Some sources even speak of killed jinn leaving behind a carcass similar to either a serpent or a scorpion. [121]

Dogs are another animal often associated with jinn, especially black dogs. (Piebald dogs are rather identified with hinn, however.) Associations between dogs and jinn prevailed in Arabic literature, but lost its meaning in Persian scriptures. [119] With that being said, except for in the 'udhrut from Yemeni folklore, the jinn cannot appear in the form of wolves, who are thought of as the natural predator of the jinn and blocks their ability to vanish. [122] [48]

Gazelles, foxes, and ostriches are also associated with jinn, though not necessarily thought to be the embodiment of jinn but rather their mounts or hosts (i.e. mythical vehicle). [121]

In form of storms and shadows Edit

The jinn are also related to the wind, and may even appear in mists or sandstorms. [123]

Zubayr ibn al-Awam, who is held to have accompanied Muhammad during his lecture to the jinn, is said to view the jinn as shadowy ghosts with no individual structure. [28] According to a narration, Ghazali asked Ṭabasī, who is famous for jinn-incantations, to reveal the jinn to him. Accordingly, Tabasi showed him the jinn, seeing them like they were "a shadow on the wall." After Ghazali requested to speak to them, Ṭabasī stated that for now he could not see more. [124]

Although sandstorms are believed to be caused by jinn, others, such as Abu Yahya Zakariya' ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini and Ghazali attribute them to natural causes. [125] Otherwise sandstorms are thought to be caused by a battle between different groups of jinn.

Anthropomorphic manifestation Edit

Though a common characteristic of the jinn is their lack of individuality, they may gain individuality by materializing in human forms, [126] such as Sakhr and several jinn known from magical writings. [127]

In their anthropomorphic shape, however, they are said to stay partly animal and are not fully human. Therefore, individual jinn are commonly depicted as monstrous and anthropomorphized creatures with body parts from different animals or human with animal traits. [127] Commonly associated with jinn in human form are the Si'lah and the Ghoul. However, since they stay partly animal, their bodies are depicted as fashioned out of two or more different species. [128] Some of them may have the hands of cats, the head of birds or wings rise from their shoulders. [129]

Visual art Edit

Although there are very few visual representations of jinn in Islamic art, when they do appear, it is usually related to a specific event or individual jinn.

Visual representations of jinn appear in manuscripts and their existence is often implied in works of architecture by the presence of apotropaic devices like serpents, which were intended to ward off evil spirits. Lastly, King Solomon is illustrated very often with jinn as the commander of an army that included them.

The Seven Jinn Kings Edit

Dalam Kitab al-Bulhan (or the 'Book of Surprises') compiled in the 14th century by Abd al-Hasan Al-Isfahani, there are illustrations of 'The Seven Jinn Kings'. [130] In general, each ‘King of the Jinn’ was represented alongside his helpers and alongside the corresponding talismanic symbols. [130] For instance, the ‘Red King of Tuesday’ was depicted in the Kitab al-Bulhan as a sinister form astride a lion. In the same illustration, he holds a severed head and a sword. This was because the ‘Red King of Tuesday’ was aligned with Mars, the God of war. [130] Alongside that, there were illustrations of the ‘Gold King’ and the ‘White King’. [130]

Aside from the seven ‘Kings of the Jinn’, the Kitab al-Bulhan included an illustration of Huma, or the ‘Fever’. Huma was depicted as three-headed and as embracing the room around him, in order to capture someone and bring on a fever in them. [131]

Architectural representation Edit

In addition to these representations of jinn in vicinity to kingship, there were also architectural references to jinn throughout the Islamic world. In the Citadel of Aleppo, the entrance gate Bab al-Hayyat made reference to jinn in the stone relief carvings of serpents likewise, the water gate at Ayyubid Harran housed two copper sculptures of jinn, serving as talismans to ward off both snakes and evil jinn in the form of snakes. [132]

Alongside these depictions of the jinn found at the Aleppo Citadel, depictions of the jinn can be found in the Rūm Seljuk palace. There are a phenomenal range of creatures that can be found on the eight-pointed tiles of the Seal of Sulaymān device. [133] Among these were the jinn, that belonged among Solomon’s army and as Solomon claimed to have control over the jinn, so did the Rūm Seljuk sultan that claimed to be the Sulaymān of his time. [134] In fact, one of the most common representations of jinn are alongside or in association with King Solomon. It was thought that King Solomon had very close ties to the jinn, and even had control over many of them. [135] The concept that a great and just ruler has the ability to command jinn was one that extended far past only King Solomon– it was also thought that emperors, such as Alexander the Great, could control an army of jinn in a similar way. [135] Given this association, Jinn were often seen with Solomon in a princely or kingly context, such as the small, animal-like jinn sitting beside King Solomon on his throne illustrated in an illuminated manuscript of The Wonders of Creation and the Oddities of Existence by Zakariyya al-Qazwini, written in the 13th century. [136]

Talismanic representation Edit

The jinn had an indirect impact on Islamic art through the creation of talismans that were alleged to guard the bearer from the jinn and were enclosed in leather and included Qur’anic verses. [137] It was not unusual for those talismans to be inscribed with separated Arabic letters, because the separation of those letters was thought to positively affect the potency of the talisman overall. [138] An object that was inscribed with the word of Allah was thought to have the power to ward off evil from the person who obtained the object, though many of these objects also had astrological signs, depictions of prophets, or religious narratives. [139]

Witchcraft (Arabic: سِحْر ‎, sihr, which is also used to mean 'magic, wizardry') is often associated with jinn and afarit [140] around the Middle East. Therefore, a sorcerer may summon a jinn and force him to perform orders. Summoned jinn may be sent to the chosen victim to cause demonic possession. Such summonings were done by invocation, [141] by aid of talismans or by satisfying the jinn, thus to make a contract. [142]

Jinn are also regarded as assistants of soothsayers. Soothsayers reveal information from the past and present the jinn can be a source of this information because their lifespans exceed those of humans. [40] Another way to subjugate them is by inserting a needle to their skin or dress. Since jinn are afraid of iron, they are unable to remove it with their own power. [143]

Ibn al-Nadim, Muslim scholar of his Kitāb al-Fihrist, describes a book that lists 70 jinn led by Fuqṭus (Arabic: فقْطس ‎), including several jinn appointed over each day of the week. [144] [145] Bayard Dodge, who translated al-Fihrist into English, notes that most of these names appear in the Testament of Solomon. [144] A collection of late 14th- or early 15th-century magico-medical manuscripts from Ocaña, Spain describes a different set of 72 jinn (termed "Tayaliq") again under Fuqtus (here named "Fayqayțūš" or Fiqitush), blaming them for various ailments. [146] [147] According to these manuscripts, each jinni was brought before King Solomon and ordered to divulge their "corruption" and "residence" while the Jinn King Fiqitush gave Solomon a recipe for curing the ailments associated with each jinni as they confessed their transgressions. [148]

A disseminated treatise on the occult, written by al-Ṭabasī, called Shāmil, deals with subjugating devils and jinn by incantations, charms and the combination of written and recited formulae and to obtain supernatural powers through their aid. Al-Ṭabasī distinguished between licit and illicit magic, the latter founded on disbelief, while the first on purity. [149]

Seven kings of the Jinn are traditionally associated with days of the week. [150] They are also attested in the Book of Wonders. Although many passages are damaged, they remain in Ottoman copies. These jinn-kings (sometimes afarit instead) are invoked to legitimate spells performed by amulets. [151]

During the Rwandan genocide, both Hutus and Tutsis avoided searching local Rwandan Muslim neighborhoods because they widely believed the myth that local Muslims and mosques were protected by the power of Islamic magic and the efficacious jinn. [ kutipan diperlukan ] In the Rwandan city of Cyangugu, arsonists ran away instead of destroying the mosque because they feared the wrath of the jinn, whom they believed were guarding the mosque. [153]

Ancient Mesopotamian religion Edit

Beliefs in entities similar to the jinn are found throughout pre-Islamic Middle Eastern cultures. [19] The ancient Sumerians believed in Pazuzu, a wind demon, [19] [154] : 147–148 who was shown with "a rather canine face with abnormally bulging eyes, a scaly body, a snake-headed penis, the talons of a bird and usually wings." [154] : 147 The ancient Babylonians believed in utukku, a class of demons which were believed to haunt remote wildernesses, graveyards, mountains, and the sea, all locations where jinn were later thought to reside. [19] The Babylonians also believed in the Rabisu, a vampiric demon believed to leap out and attack travelers at unfrequented locations, similar to the post-Islamic ghūl, [19] a specific kind of jinn whose name is etymologically related to that of the Sumerian galla, a class of Underworld demon. [155] [156]

Lamashtu, also known as Labartu, was a divine demoness said to devour human infants. [19] [154] : 115 Lamassu, also known as Shedu, were guardian spirits, sometimes with evil propensities. [19] [154] : 115–116 The Assyrians believed in the Alû, sometimes described as a wind demon residing in desolate ruins who would sneak into people's houses at night and steal their sleep. [19] In the ancient Syrian city of Palmyra, entities similar to jinn were known as ginnayê, [19] an Aramaic name which may be etymologically derived from the name of the genii from Roman mythology. [19] Like jinn among modern-day Bedouin, ginnayê were thought to resemble humans. [19] They protected caravans, cattle, and villages in the desert [19] and tutelary shrines were kept in their honor. [19] They were frequently invoked in pairs. [19]

Judaism Edit

The description of jinn is almost identical with that of the shedim from Jewish mythology. As with the jinn, some of whom follow the law brought by Muhammad, some of the shedim are believed to be followers of the law of Moses and consequently good. [157] Both are said to be invisible to human eyes but are nevertheless subject to bodily desires, like procreating and the need to eat. Some Jewish sources agree with the Islamic notion that jinn inhabited the world before humans. [158] [159] Asmodeus appears both as an individual of the jinn or shedim, as an antagonist of Solomon. [116] : 120

Buddhism Edit

As in Islam, the idea of spiritual entities converting to one's own religion can be found in Buddhism. According to lore, Buddha preached to Devas and Asura, spiritual entities who, like humans, are subject to the cycle of life, and who resemble the Islamic notion of jinn, who are also ontologically placed among humans in regard to eschatological destiny. [160] [161]

Christianity Edit

Van Dyck's Arabic translation of the Old Testament uses the alternative collective plural "jann" (Arab:الجان) translation:al-jānn) to render the Hebrew word usually translated into English as "familiar spirit" (אוב , Strong #0178) in several places (Leviticus 19:31, 20:6 1 Samuel 28:3,7,9 1 Chronicles 10:13). [162]

Some scholars evaluated whether the jinn might be compared to fallen angels in Christian traditions. Comparable to Augustine's descriptions of fallen angels as ethereal, jinn seem to be considered as the same substance. Although the concept of fallen angels is not absent in the Quran, [163] the jinn nevertheless differ in their major characteristics from that of fallen angels: While fallen angels fell from heaven, the jinn did not, but try to climb up to it in order to receive the news of the angels. Jinn are closer to daemons. [164]


Isi

For countless eons, the Ōtsutsuki clan have been travelling throughout dimensions seeking out worlds to plant Ten-Tail saplings into. Once planted, it grows into a God Tree with its roots spreading across the planet to siphon chakra and genetic material from all its surroundings and inhabitants, resulting in everything dying and it bearing a large fruit for the Ōtsutsuki to consume in order for them to evolve, gaining power and longevity. Once harvested, as they no longer need the planet, they move to another to repeat the process. Α] In order for the Ten-Tails seeds to bloom into a God Tree, a living Ōtsutsuki must be fed to the beast, hence the clan members travel in pairs, with the lower ranking being the sacrifice, while the other one watches over the fruit's cultivation. However, the Ōtsutsuki to be sacrificed utilise Kāma to prepare a vessel beforehand in order to revive themselves. Β]

Kaguya's amassed White Zetsu army.

A millennium ago, the clan sent Kaguya and Isshiki to harvest the Earth's God Tree of its chakra fruit. Γ] Instead Kaguya developed an attachment for the planet she meant to destroy, betraying Isshiki in the process whom she left for dead. In desperation, Isshiki used his Sukunahikona to reduce his body's size and infiltrate the body of a monk named Jigen, taking him over through parasitic means. Δ] Meanwhile, Kaguya consumed the chakra fruit herself and used its godlike power to end the constant war of Earth's human population with the Infinite Tsukuyomi, resulting in world peace and her being initially viewed as a benevolent deity. Ε] Foreseeing the consequences of consuming the Chakra fruit against her clan's wishes, she converted the imprisoned Infinite Tsukuyomi victims into a White Zetsu Army in preparation for the arrival of other clansmen looking to steal her chakra — an act which lead to humans viewing her as a demon and the Ōtsutsuki condemning her as a traitor.

In time Kaguya gave birth to twin sons: Hagoromo and Hamura, both of whom were born with chakra of their own. Afterwards, Kaguya eventually found herself ruled by her own desire to possess all chakra, in which made her turn against her own sons. Having devised a plan to absorb their chakra, she integrated with the Earth's God Tree and became the Ten-Tails. The monster terrorised the world until Hagoromo and Hamura sealed it with their Six Paths — Chibaku Tensei, thus creating the Moon. The Ten-Tails' chakra was sealed into Hagoromo while its husk, the Demonic Statue of the Outer Path, was hidden away and sealed on the Moon, in order to prevent the Ten-Tails' revival. Before being sealed, Kaguya created a parasitic lifeform containing her will, Black Zetsu to find a way to revive her. Leaving leadership of the clan to Hamura, he decreed that the clan would stand guard over the Demonic Statue. ΐ] Hagoromo and his brother's direct bloodline stayed on Earth, the latter which inherited the Byakugan and became the Hyūga clan, while Hamura migrated the clan to the moon, maintaining order and stability with the power of his Tenseigan. Ζ]

Believing chakra was a power that linked everything in the world, Hagoromo set out to spread the message to the people of the land, during which his teachings became known as ninshū. ΐ] Towards the end of his life, he divided his chakra into the nine tailed beasts, his way of ensuring that the Ten-Tails and thus Kaguya would never be reborn. Before he died, he passed over his eldest son, Indra, and entrusted his mission of peace to his youngest son, Asura. Black Zetsu manipulated Indra's jealousy toward Asura, resulting in the two brothers' confrontation being passed on to their descendants by the pair being reincarnated. Having spent the remainder of his life overlooking Earth, Hamura entrusted his Ōtsutsuki clansmen with a celestial degree watching over humanity before his passing. Afterwards, the people of the moon treated Hamura's Tenseigan as a treasure, enshrining it as a religious object and devoting a plan to eternally preserving it with the Byakugan of newborn members taken and put into the vessel to power it. Ζ]

The Moon's main family defeated by the branch family.

The millennium that passed involved the Moon's branch family misinterpreting Hamura's celestial decree, leading to them believing he wanted his descendants to destroy Earth in the event the world Hagoromo fashioned lead astray. The main family warred against the branch family over their different interpretations and eventually annihilated the former using the weaponized Tenseigan. On Earth, humans along with Ōtsutsuki's descendants such as the Senju, Uzumaki, Uchiha, Hyūga, and Kaguya clan utilised Indra's invention of ninjutsu to shape the shinobi world.

A thousand years after the Ten-Tails' defeat, the Moon's branch family dwindled to only Toneri, who was aware that the Demonic Statue was stolen and the Ten-Tails was revived during the Fourth Shinobi World War. The event ultimately lead to Kaguya being temporarily revived, but was soon sealed along with Black Zetsu in another dimension by the reincarnations of Asura and Indra. Two years later, as his clan had concluded that Earth's shinobi will destroy the world's peace and order, Toneri deemed Hagoromo's world a failure, and began to act on Hamura's mistranslated celestial decree. Unable to reach an agreement with the Hyūga clan, Toneri resorted to kidnapping the clan's heir and taking her Byakugan in order to awaken the Tenseigan. The act caught the attention of Konohagakure, leading to a team discovering his intentions and defeating him. After becoming aware of Hamura's true decree, he vowed to remain in self-imposed exile on the Moon in order to stand vigil over the Earth as a solitary guardian. Η]

Momoshiki and Kinshiki harvesting fruits of God Trees.

Years later during the Seventh Hokage's era, Momoshiki and Kinshiki in another world became aware of abnormalities in Kaguya's world, prompting them to inform their clan and investigate the situation. ⎖] They were dispatched by the main family to investigate Kaguya's whereabouts, alongside Urashiki. Ώ] Though they weren't aware of the fate of Kaguya or her chakra, ⎗] by Urashiki's account they saw everything including the Byakugan Princess incident on the Moon. Ώ] They deemed Kaguya a disgrace and traitor for growing an attachment to Earth and taking up arms against them. ⎘] By the time Momoshiki and Kinshiki were defeated, Konoha had discovered four separate Ōtsutsuki clan ruins during their investigation of the clan. ⎙] Sometime afterwards, Konoha had discovered the clan's time-travelling artefact Karasuki, which Urashiki took in a final bid at stealing the Nine-Tails' chakra from the past, only for him to meet his end.

In the meanwhile, Jigen as Isshiki's vessel managed to acquire a juvenile Ten-Tails, planning to use it together with Kara as a seed for the new God Tree on Earth. Α] Originally, Isshiki was planning to feed himself via Jigen to this Ten-Tails for it to bloom into the God Tree, due to Kaguya's betrayal and sealing leaving him with no other option, despite the resulting Chakra Fruit being much lower quality due to Isshiki's fatal injury Kawaki was then to serve as the vessel for Isshiki's resurrection. ⎚] ⎛] There was some kind of time limit to their plans, but it was extended to an indefinite amount when Kara discovered that Momoshiki also created a vessel of his own, Boruto Uzumaki, before dying. ⎜] Realising Boruto will be revived as Momoshiki, Isshiki shifted his plans to using the boy instead of himself as a sacrifice for the Ten-Tails, which would produce a much more powerful God Tree and Chakra Fruit. ⎛] Isshiki's plans ultimately ended in failure as he was betrayed by his subordinates Amado and Koji Kashin, and Kawaki freeing himself as the vessel, which led to Isshiki's demise. Momoshiki, having taken over much of Boruto's being, saw Isshiki's death as a benefit to him.

Despite Kawaki having lost the Kāma, he still had 80% of its biological data extracted into his body, causing Momoshiki to deem him close to a full Ōtsutsuki, and thus a viable sacrifice for the Ten-Tails. However, Boruto managed to regain control of his own body before Momoshiki could take Kawaki to the beast. Soon after, Isshiki's expiring soul appeared before his loyal servant and failed vessel, Code, and bade him use his White Kāma to transform into an Ōtsutsuki and carry on the Ōtsutsuki Will. Code agreed to do so after first getting revenge on those who killed his master.


Native American Tales

The wolf features prominently in a number of Native American stories. There is a Lakota tale about a woman who was injured while traveling. She was found by a wolf pack that took her in and nurtured her. During her time with them, she learned the ways of the wolves, and when she returned to her tribe, she used her newfound knowledge to help her people. In particular, she knew far before anyone else when a predator or enemy was approaching.

A Cherokee tale tells the story of the dog and the wolf. Originally, Dog lived on the mountain, and Wolf lived beside the fire. When winter came, though, Dog got cold, so he came down and sent Wolf away from the fire. Wolf went to the mountains and found that he liked it there. Wolf prospered in the mountains, and formed a clan of his own, while Dog stayed by the fire with the people. Eventually, the people killed Wolf, but his brothers came down and took revenge. Ever since then, Dog has been man’s faithful companion, but the people are wise enough not to hunt Wolf anymore.


Sumber

Of the 27 books in the New Testament, 13 are attributed to Paul, and approximately half of another, Acts of the Apostles, deals with Paul’s life and works. Thus, about half of the New Testament stems from Paul and the people whom he influenced. Only 7 of the 13 letters, however, can be accepted as being entirely authentic (dictated by Paul himself). The others come from followers writing in his name, who often used material from his surviving letters and who may have had access to letters written by Paul that no longer survive. Although frequently useful, the information in Acts is secondhand, and it is sometimes in direct conflict with the letters. The seven undoubted letters constitute the best source of information on Paul’s life and especially his thought in the order in which they appear in the New Testament, they are Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, and Philemon. The probable chronological order (leaving aside Philemon, which cannot be dated) is 1 Thessalonians, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, and Romans. Letters considered “Deutero-Pauline” (probably written by Paul’s followers after his death) are Ephesians, Colossians, and 2 Thessalonians 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus are “Trito-Pauline” (probably written by members of the Pauline school a generation after his death).

Paul was a Greek-speaking Jew from Asia Minor. His birthplace, Tarsus, was a major city in eastern Cilicia, a region that had been made part of the Roman province of Syria by the time of Paul’s adulthood. Two of the main cities of Syria, Damascus and Antioch, played a prominent part in his life and letters. Although the exact date of his birth is unknown, he was active as a missionary in the 40s and 50s of the 1st century ce . From this it may be inferred that he was born about the same time as Jesus (c. 4 bce ) or a little later. He was converted to faith in Jesus Christ about 33 ce , and he died, probably in Rome, circa 62–64 ce .

In his childhood and youth, Paul learned how to “work with [his] own hands” (1 Corinthians 4:12). His trade, tent making, which he continued to practice after his conversion to Christianity, helps to explain important aspects of his apostleship. He could travel with a few leather-working tools and set up shop anywhere. It is doubtful that his family was wealthy or aristocratic, but, since he found it noteworthy that he sometimes worked with his own hands, it may be assumed that he was not a common labourer. His letters are written in Koine, or “common” Greek, rather than in the elegant literary Greek of his wealthy contemporary the Jewish philosopher Philo Judaeus of Alexandria, and this too argues against the view that Paul was an aristocrat. Moreover, he knew how to dictate, and he could write with his own hand in large letters (Galatians 6:11), though not in the small, neat letters of the professional scribe.

Until about the midpoint of his life, Paul was a member of the Pharisees, a religious party that emerged during the later Second Temple period. What little is known about Paul the Pharisee reflects the character of the Pharisaic movement. Pharisees believed in life after death, which was one of Paul’s deepest convictions. They accepted nonbiblical “traditions” as being about as important as the written Bible Paul refers to his expertise in “traditions” (Galatians 1:14). Pharisees were very careful students of the Hebrew Bible, and Paul was able to quote extensively from the Greek translation. (It was fairly easy for a bright, ambitious young boy to memorize the Bible, and it would have been very difficult and expensive for Paul as an adult to carry around dozens of bulky scrolls.) By his own account, Paul was the best Jew and the best Pharisee of his generation (Philippians 3:4–6 Galatians 1:13–14), though he claimed to be the least apostle of Christ (2 Corinthians 11:22–3 1 Corinthians 15:9–10) and attributed his successes to the grace of God.

Paul spent much of the first half of his life persecuting the nascent Christian movement, an activity to which he refers several times. Paul’s motivations are unknown, but they seem not to have been connected to his Pharisaism. The chief persecutors of the Christian movement in Jerusalem were the high priest and his associates, who were Sadducees (if they belonged to one of the parties), and Acts depicts the leading Pharisee, Gamaliel, as defending the Christians (Acts 5:34). It is possible that Paul believed that Jewish converts to the new movement were not sufficiently observant of the Jewish law, that Jewish converts mingled too freely with Gentile (non-Jewish) converts, thus associating themselves with idolatrous practices, or that the notion of a crucified messiah was objectionable. The young Paul certainly would have rejected the view that Jesus had been raised after his death—not because he doubted resurrection as such but because he would not have believed that God chose to favour Jesus by raising him before the time of the Judgment of the world.

Whatever his reasons, Paul’s persecutions probably involved traveling from synagogue to synagogue and urging the punishment of Jews who accepted Jesus as the messiah. Disobedient members of synagogues were punished by some form of ostracism or by light flogging, which Paul himself later suffered at least five times (2 Corinthians 11:24), though he does not say when or where. According to Acts, Paul began his persecutions in Jerusalem, a view at odds with his assertion that he did not know any of the Jerusalem followers of Christ until well after his own conversion (Galatians 1:4–17).

Paul was on his way to Damascus when he had a vision that changed his life: according to Galatians 1:16, God revealed his Son to him. More specifically, Paul states that he saw the Lord (1 Corinthians 9:1), though Acts claims that near Damascus he saw a blinding bright light. Following this revelation, which convinced Paul that God had indeed chosen Jesus to be the promised messiah, he went into Arabia—probably Coele-Syria, west of Damascus (Galatians 1:17). He then returned to Damascus, and three years later he went to Jerusalem to become acquainted with the leading apostles there. After this meeting he began his famous missions to the west, preaching first in his native Syria and Cilicia (Galatians 1:17–24). During the next 20 years or so (C. mid-30s to mid-50s), he established several churches in Asia Minor and at least three in Europe, including the church at Corinth.

During the course of his missions, Paul realized that his preaching to Gentiles was creating difficulties for the Christians in Jerusalem, who thought that Gentiles must become Jewish in order to join the Christian movement. To settle the issue, Paul returned to Jerusalem and struck a deal. It was agreed that Peter would be the principal apostle to Jews and Paul the principal apostle to Gentiles. Paul would not have to change his message, but he would take up a collection for the Jerusalem church, which was in need of financial support (Galatians 2:1–10 2 Corinthians 8–9 Romans 15:16–17, 25–26), though Paul’s Gentile churches were hardly well off. In Romans 15:16–17 Paul seems to interpret the “offering of the Gentiles” symbolically, suggesting that it is the prophesied Gentile pilgrimage to the Temple of Jerusalem, with their wealth in their hands (e.g., Isaiah 60:1–6). It is also obvious that Paul and the Jerusalem apostles made a political bargain not to interfere in each other’s spheres. The “circumcision faction” of the Jerusalem apostles (Galatians 2:12–13), which argued that converts should undergo circumcision as a sign of accepting the covenant between God and Abraham, later broke this agreement by preaching to the Gentile converts both in Antioch (Galatians 2:12) and Galatia and insisting that they be circumcised, leading to some of Paul’s strongest invective (Galatians 1:7–9 3:1 5:2–12 6:12–13).

In the late 50s Paul returned to Jerusalem with the money he had raised and a few of his Gentile converts. There he was arrested for taking a Gentile too far into the Temple precincts, and, after a series of trials, he was sent to Rome. Later Christian tradition favours the view that he was executed there (1 Clement 5:1–7), perhaps as part of the executions of Christians ordered by the Roman emperor Nero following the great fire in the city in 64 ce .


Kemampuan

Gods have greatly varied powers that are often specific to their domains, although they may occasionally overlap with similar gods.

Shared powers include immortality, a great deal of magic power, senses and reflexes above that of a mortal, and some amount of shapeshifting.

They may also increase the stored energy of whoever they host.

Gods may at sometime, be immune or resistant to effects of certain Divine Words. Example of this is when Sadie Kane used the Ha-di spell on Sekhmet which did not affect the goddess at all.

Gods of magic, like Isis or Thoth, either with the total possession of their host or in the "perfect union" state with them, has the ability to create portals even on the Demon Days, especially when they are on their own. Ptah, a god of creation has a similar ability in that he can open portals in places where curses prevent that and Bes can't. Also gods of magic have greater power over divine words than ordinary magicians, as while magicians can conjure objects and elements with this magic, these gods can even summon concepts.

The gods, while or after hosting a magician, may leave some of their traces, including their personal habits and their imprint on their host's magic based on its color. For example, Sadie Kane's glyphs are golden due to the goddess who hosted her, Isis while Amos Kane was red because of Set's possession. These traces may also allow former hosts to control animals that come under the gods authority. For example, Carter Kane was able to control the griffin Freak due to it recognizing him as a former host of Horus who it served.

Gods can remain as an echo inside the mind of their previous host, allowing them access to places to wherein they are locked against but their host is not as demonstrated by Horus in his conversation with Carter Kane inside the Hall of Ages in The Throne of Fire.

Gods may hasten the development of the abilities of whoever they host.

Gods are almost omnipresent. Their presence can be anywhere at once. Even though they banished into the Duat, they are aware, conscious, and knowing of what is happening to the mortal world as demonstrated by Bast, Isis and the others. Take Bast for an example. It was said that all that time, she was bound to Apophis in the abyss, but she states in The Red Pyramid that she protected the children of the Pharaohs.

Gods can possess multiple beings or locations at once with just parts of the ba. Set possessed both the Red Pyramid and Amos Kane, Bast possessed both Muffin while in the Duat and another cat in Egypt to communicate with Sadie Kane and Walt Stone.

Gods can possess beings even from their prisons. Apophis possessed Face of Horror from his weakened prison with just a sliver of his ba to manipulate Set. He was also able to possess several minions during The Throne of Fire before he escaped including a bau.

A useful power that the gods have is the ability to see magicians ba and even influence where it goes. The greatest extent of this ability was that while Carter Kane was asleep, Horus, the war god was able to pull his ba into his own body.

If they have a symbol like a tyet, it may be possible for a god to create a seal on an entrance or exit to prevent it opening.

Jika di dekat titik fokus Ma'at yang kuat seperti para dewa Monumen Washington dapat menarik kekuatan darinya untuk meningkatkan sihir mereka. Namun ini mungkin, dalam kasus inang manusia hanya dapat dicapai dalam penyatuan sempurna atau kepemilikan total. Set adalah pengecualian menjadi dewa kejahatan dan kekacauan. Penyihir juga memiliki kemampuan dalam menggunakan Firman Tuhan mereka dapat menarik energi dari Ma'at yang serupa.

Dewa dan tuan rumah mereka memiliki kemampuan untuk melihat mantra penyembunyian masa lalu.

Jika dua dewa adalah saudara kandung dan salah satu dari mereka memiliki kekuasaan atas domain fisik seperti sungai dan dapat berkomunikasi melalui itu, yang lain jika dekat domain ini akan dapat berkomunikasi dengan yang pertama jika dia berada di sisi yang sama dari Duat .

Dewa dan tuan rumah mereka telah meningkatkan kontrol atas Ba mereka. Sadie sementara tuan rumah Isis dapat mengubah miliknya menjadi replika tubuhnya sendiri dan Carter sementara tuan rumah Horus dapat mengirimnya, saat terjaga, ke ruang tahta para dewa.

Sebagian besar dewa laki-laki utama memiliki kekuatan manusia super tingkat tinggi. Yang paling mencolok, adalah dewa babon Babi dan dewa buaya Sobek.

Dalam pertempuran, para dewa dapat memanggil pakaian perang Mesir. Anubis mampu melakukan ini, bersama dengan Ra. Ini juga dapat meluas ke senjata karena yang pertama dapat memanggil staf was dan yang terakhir dapat mengubah staf dan tongkatnya.

Dewa memiliki ketahanan terhadap serangan api dan dapat dengan mudah menjentikkannya dengan tangan ke satu sisi.

Jika mereka tidak memiliki inang yang hidup, alih-alih terbungkus dalam avatar ketika dalam pertempuran, dewa tertentu dapat tumbuh dalam ukuran. Mereka juga bisa melakukannya saat dalam Duat.

Dewa memiliki ketahanan terhadap energi Kekacauan sehingga mereka tidak terbakar saat berada di dekat Laut Kekacauan atau Apophis. Ini meluas ke host mereka, bahkan jika mereka memegang kendali.

Jika dewa memiliki bakat, mereka dapat membuat portal canggih dalam bentuk pintu kegelapan. Mereka maju karena tidak membutuhkan artefak dan tidak terpengaruh oleh gangguan magis. Mereka juga dapat membuka ke berbagai tempat di Duat, tidak seperti portal, yang harus dibuka di awal Sungai Malam.

Dewa dapat melepaskan ikatan sihir dan mantra yang tidak kuat dengan sangat cepat dan mudah. Horus mampu keluar dari pengekangan sihir Set tanpa kesulitan dan Set segera setelah itu mampu berubah kembali menjadi dirinya sendiri beberapa detik setelah dipaksa untuk mengambil bentuk kelelawar buah.

Dewa setidaknya bisa sebentar menggunakan setengah dewa sebagai tuan rumah. Nekhbet sempat menggunakan Percy Jackson, putra Poseidon sebagai tuan rumah untuk melawan Setne. Namun, ini berbahaya karena para dewa bukanlah Darah Firaun dan terkait dengan jajaran dewa yang berbeda.


Tonton videonya: Polisi Turki Sita Buku Mantra Sihir Kuno di Atas Kulit Ular Sanca


Komentar:

  1. Mazujora

    Menurut pendapat saya, ini adalah pertanyaan yang menarik, saya akan mengambil bagian dalam diskusi. Bersama-sama kita bisa sampai pada jawaban yang benar. Saya yakin.

  2. Dikesone

    Ini berlebihan.

  3. Ferran

    Saya minta maaf karena saya tidak dapat berpartisipasi dalam diskusi sekarang. Sangat sedikit informasi. Tapi topik ini sangat menarik minat saya.

  4. Sandon

    Luar biasa, ini adalah kalimat yang sangat berharga

  5. Asentzio

    Bravo, sepertinya ide yang bagus bagi saya



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