Pameran Dunia

Pameran Dunia


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Warisan Pameran Dunia 1964, 50 Tahun Kemudian

1. Konferensi videoPengunjung ke Bell System Pavilion terpesona oleh demonstrasi Picturephones perusahaan, yang memungkinkan penelepon untuk melihat satu sama lain di monitor televisi kecil. Puluhan tahun sebelum FaceTime dan Skype menjadikan konferensi video sebagai hal yang biasa, eksperimen Bell ...Baca selengkapnya

Pameran Dunia New York dibuka

Pada tanggal 30 April 1939, Pameran Dunia New York dibuka di Kota New York. Upacara pembukaan, yang menampilkan pidato oleh Presiden Franklin D. Roosevelt dan Gubernur New York Herbert Lehman, mengantar hari pertama siaran televisi di New York. Mencakup 1.200 hektar di ...Baca selengkapnya

Drive-through McDonald's pertama dibuka di Beijing

Pada 19 Januari 2007, Beijing, Cina, ibu kota negara terpadat di planet ini, mendapatkan restoran McDonald's drive-through pertamanya. Upacara pembukaan restoran cepat saji baru berlantai dua, yang terletak di sebelah pompa bensin, termasuk penari singa tradisional Tiongkok ...Baca selengkapnya


Pameran Dunia - SEJARAH

Pameran Dunia sebagai Sejarah

Sangat mengherankan bahwa di era globalisasi kita saat ini, pameran dunia sebagian besar telah menghilang. Sejak Perang Dunia II, hanya ada empat pameran dunia resmi: di Brussel, Belgia, pada tahun 1958, Montreal, Kanada, pada tahun 1967, Osaka, Jepang, pada tahun 1970, dan Seville, Spanyol, pada tahun 1992.

CATATAN: Biro Pameran Internasional (atau Bureau International des Expositions) adalah organisasi yang bertanggung jawab untuk menyetujui pameran Dunia. Ini berbasis di Paris, Prancis dan didirikan sebagai konvensi internasional pada tahun 1928. Namun, banyak pameran berlangsung tanpa izin, mis. Pameran Dunia New York 1964/1965. (lihat http://www.bie-paris.org)

Meskipun akan ada pameran dunia yang berpengaruh di abad ke-20 - seperti Pameran Pembelian Louisiana di St. Louis pada tahun 1904 dan Pameran Dunia New York 1939, yang berpusat pada "dunia masa depan" - paruh kedua abad ke-19 adalah zaman keemasan dari pameran dunia. Prototipe untuk pameran selanjutnya adalah Crystal Palace Exposition di London pada tahun 1851, yang menarik lebih dari 6 juta pengunjung yang datang untuk merayakan revolusi industri dan melihat sekitar 13.000 pameran. Simbol dari Paris Exposition Universelle tahun 1889 adalah Menara Eiffel.

Tiga eksposisi Amerika akhir abad kesembilan belas sangat penting. NS Pameran Centennial di Philadelphia pada tahun 1876 memperingati satu abad kemerdekaan Amerika. NS Pameran Kolombia Dunia di Chicago pada tahun 1893 menandai peringatan 400 tahun penemuan Dunia Baru oleh Columbus. NS Negara Bagian Kapas dan Pameran Internasional di Atlanta pada tahun 1895 berusaha untuk menarik investasi utara ke Selatan Baru tiga dekade setelah berakhirnya Perang Saudara.


Apakah Pameran Dunia Sudah Menjadi Masa Lalu? Peran Arsitektur di Salah Satu Tahap Terbesar Sejarah

Pameran Dunia tampaknya menjadi kenangan masa lalu yang jauh. Acara berskala besar ini pernah menghadirkan kuliner pokok, kemajuan teknologi, dan memperkenalkan beberapa contoh arsitektur dan landmark paling terkenal yang memengaruhi cara kita berpikir tentang desain dan konstruksi bahkan di masa sekarang. Sepanjang berbagai pameran dan pameran yang diadakan, wacana arsitektur itu sendiri secara signifikan maju dan kemegahan serta keadaan yang mengelilingi kelenturan otot inovasi internasional ini membayangkan kembali seperti apa kehidupan di dekade-dekade mendatang.

Kemampuan suatu negara untuk menjadi tuan rumah Pameran Dunia pernah dianggap suatu kehormatan. Itu adalah kesempatan untuk mempresentasikan ide dan eksperimen dengan cara yang mendorong persaingan dalam skala global. Setiap negara yang berpartisipasi secara hati-hati memilih pengalaman yang sangat rinci, yang berarti bahwa panggung ditetapkan bagi para arsitek untuk mendobrak batas praktik tradisional mereka untuk mengeksplorasi ide-ide yang lebih konseptual atau futuristik. Paviliun Barcelona, ​​misalnya, adalah penyempurnaan dari ide-ide Mies van der Rohe tentang bentuk sederhana, modernisme, dan proporsi, dan merupakan bekas Paviliun Jerman untuk Pameran Internasional 1929 di Barcelona. Bahkan Menara Eiffel, yang mungkin merupakan struktur paling terkenal di Paris, dibangun untuk Pameran Dunia pada tahun 1899. Meskipun tujuannya adalah untuk membongkarnya setelah acara tersebut, itu sangat populer dan menjadi identik dengan ibu kota Prancis, sehingga diizinkan untuk tetap. Crystal Palace di London, Jackson Park di Chicago, dan Habitat 67 di Montreal adalah hasil dari Pameran Dunia yang telah mempertaruhkan klaim mereka terhadap signifikansi arsitektur juga.

Tetapi selama lima puluh tahun terakhir, peristiwa-peristiwa ini telah kehilangan daya pikatnya. Pada tahun 2010, Pameran Dunia Shanghai nyaris tidak menarik perhatian siapa pun, dan hal yang sama juga terjadi di Milan pada tahun 2015. Jadi apa yang terjadi, dan apakah kita akan pernah mengalami pameran seperti dulu? Sementara banyak yang percaya bahwa jawabannya adalah tidak, alasannya terletak pada apa arti kemajuan arsitektur dan desain secara historis, terutama pada pertengahan hingga akhir abad ke-20. Kerangka waktu di mana Pameran Dunia paling populer adalah selama periode Perang Dingin, yang ditandai dengan ketegangan geopolitik yang tinggi antara Amerika Serikat dan Uni Soviet setelah Perang Dunia II. Secara umum, era ini adalah masa di mana setiap bangsa dan sekutunya akan bergiliran menyombongkan diri dalam segala aspek kreativitas, dan kemajuan inovatif. Sebagai salah satu elemen yang paling bertahan lama dan ekspresif dari ideologi dan prioritas suatu negara relatif terhadap zeitgeist tertentu, arsitektur juga memainkan peran besar dalam agenda nasional ini. Dalam hal Pameran Dunia, seiring berjalannya waktu, penekanan pada paviliun itu sendiri bergeser dari menampilkan produk dan desain dan lebih fokus pada menampilkan negara itu sendiri. Ini menjadi jauh lebih sedikit tentang arsitektur, dan lebih banyak tentang pesan langsung, yang seringkali mengubah acara ini menjadi perpanjangan merek suatu negara. Setelah Uni Soviet jatuh pada tahun 1991, banyak negara merasa telah “menang” dan pemerintah perlahan-lahan mengurangi dana yang mendukung acara tersebut.

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Misi Pameran Dunia juga telah berubah dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, mengakui berkurangnya kebutuhan negara-negara untuk menempatkan diri mereka pada platform global. Alih-alih membayangkan dunia masa depan masa depan, seperti yang dilakukan Pameran Dunia 1964 yang terkenal di New York City, mereka bertujuan untuk fokus pada masalah yang dapat diselesaikan tanpa memerlukan arsitektur dan ruang fisik. Dan meskipun ada minat yang dipulihkan untuk membawa kembali pameran ke tempat mereka dulu berada dalam kejayaannya, dan dengan meningkatnya jumlah festival dan biennale yang berfokus pada arsitektur, kita sekarang menghadapi masalah digitalisasi. Banyak dari acara ini memiliki keyakinan bahwa hampir semua hal dapat dihubungkan melalui jalur serat optik, sehingga semakin sedikit minat untuk menyatukan dunia untuk melihat kemajuan kolektif materi iklan dan sebagai gantinya, melihat arsitektur dalam format digital dari kenyamanan rumah kita. .

Di masa kejayaannya, Pameran Dunia adalah puncak kemajuan, imajinasi, dan kreativitas ke depan dengan cara yang belum pernah dilihat sebelumnya atau direplikasi sejak saat itu. Sementara dunia mungkin kekurangan sebagian dari ketidakmampuan kita untuk berkumpul bersama dengan cara yang pernah kita lakukan, mungkin ada cara untuk membuat peristiwa ini relevan lagi dan membayangkan kembali Dunia Masa Depan dengan cara yang mencerminkan apa yang mungkin terjadi di hari esok kita yang baru.


Bagaimana Pameran Dunia Membentuk Sejarah Arsitektur

Pameran Dunia telah lama menjadi penting dalam memajukan inovasi dan wacana arsitektur. Banyak dari monumen kami yang paling dicintai dirancang dan dibangun khusus untuk pameran dunia, hanya untuk tetap menjadi perlengkapan ikonik di kota-kota yang menjadi tuan rumah mereka. Tapi ada apa dengan Expos yang tampaknya menciptakan landmark arsitektur yang bertahan lama, dan apakah ini masih terjadi sampai sekarang?

Sepanjang sejarah, setiap Expo baru menawarkan kesempatan kepada para arsitek untuk mempresentasikan ide-ide radikal dan menggunakan acara-acara ini sebagai laboratorium kreatif untuk menguji inovasi yang berani dalam desain dan teknologi bangunan. Pameran dunia tak terhindarkan mendorong persaingan, dengan setiap negara berusaha untuk mengedepankan yang terbaik dengan hampir semua biaya. Jenis kekuasaan penuh ini memungkinkan para arsitek untuk menghindari banyak kendala terprogram dari komisi sehari-hari dan berkonsentrasi untuk mengekspresikan ide-ide dalam bentuk yang paling murni. Banyak karya besar seperti Paviliun Jerman karya Mies van der Rohe (lebih dikenal sebagai Paviliun Barcelona) untuk Pameran Internasional Barcelona 1929 dengan sepenuh hati mengabdikan diri pada pendekatan konseptual mereka sehingga hanya mungkin dalam konteks paviliun Pameran.

Untuk merayakan pembukaan Expo Milano 2015 baru-baru ini, kami telah mengumpulkan beberapa Pameran Dunia yang paling penting dalam sejarah untuk melihat lebih dekat dampaknya terhadap perkembangan arsitektur.

Pameran Besar tahun 1851

Istana Kristal. Gambar melalui Wikimedia Commons

Awalnya dimaksudkan untuk menampilkan inovasi dalam teknologi dan manufaktur dari seluruh dunia, Pameran Besar berlangsung di London pada tahun 1851 dan umumnya dianggap sebagai pameran dunia pertama. Pameran di sini memamerkan lebih dari 100.000 objek termasuk mesin cetak terbaru, kereta, dan permata langka, tetapi mungkin fitur yang paling menakjubkan dari pameran ini adalah Crystal Palace yang terkenal.

Dirancang oleh Sir Joseph Paxton dan dibangun terutama dari kaca dan besi, Crystal Palace menunjukkan prestasi rekayasa yang luar biasa dan dicatat untuk jumlah kaca terbesar yang pernah terlihat dalam pembangunan saat itu. Dengan interior terbuka dan pencahayaan alami, Crystal Palace berfungsi sebagai ruang yang optimal untuk pameran dengan memanfaatkan cangkang mandiri yang bertumpu pada tiang besi tipis dan mengurangi biaya operasional pameran dengan menghindari kebutuhan pencahayaan buatan. Bangunan itu kemudian dipindahkan setelah pameran berakhir tetapi dihancurkan oleh api pada tahun 1936. Meskipun kehancurannya yang tidak menguntungkan, Crystal Palace akan menjadi inspirasi untuk mengembangkan teknik pembuatan kaca di gedung-gedung dan menjadi preseden untuk struktur dinding tirai berikutnya.

Pameran Universal tahun 1889

Galerie des Machines. Gambar melalui Wikimedia Commons

Pameran Universal 1889 (Exposition Universelle de 1889) adalah perayaan pencapaian internasional dalam arsitektur, seni rupa, dan teknologi terbaru, dengan Menara Eiffel yang baru dibangun sebagai daya tarik utamanya. Pameran tahun 1889 merupakan bagian dari tradisi pameran universal yang berlangsung setiap sebelas tahun di Paris, dengan peristiwa tahun 1889 yang terjadi pada seratus tahun Revolusi Prancis. Komisaris memutuskan untuk menolak rencana awal untuk guillotine setinggi 300 meter demi desain menara besi oleh Gustave Eiffel.

Menara ini berfungsi sebagai gerbang masuk, dan ikon untuk pameran yang menarik hampir 2 juta pengunjung. Pada saat itu, menara adalah struktur tertinggi di dunia dan masyarakat berbondong-bondong ke lantai atas untuk menikmati pemandangan ibukota Prancis. Meskipun awalnya dibenci oleh banyak warga Paris karena kehadirannya yang menjulang di atas kota dan dimaksudkan untuk bertahan hanya selama pameran, menara ini masih berdiri sebagai salah satu karya arsitektur paling ikonik di dunia.

Struktur yang kurang terkenal namun sama pentingnya yang dibangun untuk pameran adalah Galerie des Machines yang dirancang oleh arsitek Ferdinand Dutert dan insinyur Victor Contamin. Machinery Hall membentang 111 meter dan merupakan ruang interior terpanjang di dunia pada saat itu menggunakan sistem lengkungan berengsel yang terbuat dari besi. Tanpa dukungan internal, struktur besi dan kaca besar ini kemungkinan memanfaatkan Crystal Palace sebagai preseden dan digunakan kembali untuk pameran tahun 1900 sebelum dihancurkan pada tahun 1910 untuk membuka pemandangan di sepanjang Champ de Mars.

Pameran Internasional Barcelona tahun 1929

Pameran Internasional Barcelona. Gambar © Kanaan, melalui Wikimedia Commons

Pameran Dunia kedua yang diadakan di Barcelona setelah tahun 1888, Pameran Barcelona tahun 1929 menghasilkan serangkaian struktur yang menonjol dan tahan lama dari berbagai gaya arsitektur. Banyak dari bangunan ini mengelilingi Plaça d'Espanya di kaki Montjuïc dan terletak di sepanjang jalan aksial. Urutan ruang yang megah ini berpuncak pada Palau Nacional, sekarang Museu Nacional d'Art de Catalunya, dan mengejutkan karena fakta bahwa struktur berornamen yang terinspirasi dari sejarah ini dibangun pada periode waktu yang sama dan untuk peristiwa yang sama dengan Mies van der Paviliun Barcelona Rohe. Penjajaran antara sejarah dan modernitas ini adalah salah satu elemen paling unik dari eksposisi dan merupakan penyimpangan penting dari tema fiksi ilmiah umum yang terlihat di banyak pameran dunia lainnya.

Paviliun Barcelona asli dibongkar pada tahun 1930 tak lama setelah akhir eksposisi, tetapi dibangun kembali pada tahun 1983 oleh sekelompok arsitek Catalan di lokasi yang sama hanya menggunakan beberapa foto dan gambar yang tersisa.

Pameran Dunia New York 1964

Pameran Dunia New York 1964. Gambar melalui situs People for the Pavilion

Dengan segala sesuatu mulai dari roket, hingga mobil dan kota futuristik, hingga animatronik Abraham Lincoln, Pameran Dunia New York 1964 benar-benar merangkul kebaruan fiksi ilmiah. Dengan tema “Perdamaian Melalui Pemahaman,” eksposisi berlangsung di Flushing Meadows Corona Park, Queens di tempat yang sama dengan Pameran Dunia 1939-40. Di sini 650 hektar paviliun, pajangan, dan fasilitas umum menghiasi lanskap taman untuk memamerkan ide dan pencapaian terbaru perusahaan dan negara kepada lebih dari 50 juta pengunjung.

Bahkan arsitektur di eksposisi tampaknya menarik inspirasi dari zaman ruang angkasa dan termasuk Paviliun Negara Bagian New York yang terkenal dari Phillip Johnson. Menjulang setinggi 100 kaki, “atap roda sepeda” dari paviliun utama ditopang oleh enam belas kolom beton berlubang yang berbentuk slip. Cincin kompresi dan tegangan dari kabel baja memberikan atap bentuk cembung dan mendukung terpal plastik Kalwall berwarna-warni. Kedua teknik ini mewakili inovasi arsitektur radikal pada saat itu dan tampak sangat berbeda dari banyak karya Johnson lainnya. Berdekatan dengan paviliun, tiga menara observasi berbentuk cakram mencapai ketinggian 226 kaki dan memberi pengunjung titik pandang baru di situs pameran.

Paviliun Johnson masih dapat dilihat di lokasi Expo hari ini, meskipun nasibnya di tahun-tahun mendatang tidak pasti. Ditinggalkan selama bertahun-tahun, paviliun sangat membutuhkan restorasi dan sekelompok kecil sukarelawan telah mendedikasikan waktu setiap tahun sejak 2009 untuk mengecat ulang dinding merah, putih, dan kuningnya, tetapi tindakan lebih lanjut diperlukan untuk melestarikan tengara arsitektur yang unik ini.

Eksposisi Abad 21 Tahun 1962

Eksposisi Abad 21 Tahun 1962 . Gambar © Arsip Kota Seattle melalui Wikimedia Commons

Kadang-kadang, eksposisi memiliki dampak luas tidak hanya pada lingkungan binaan, tetapi juga kehidupan ekonomi dan budaya kota tuan rumah mereka. Mirip dengan banyak pameran dunia lainnya, eksposisi tahun 1962 berfokus pada tema ruang angkasa, sains dan teknologi, dan masa depan, dan temanya sangat dipengaruhi oleh Perlombaan Antariksa yang sedang berlangsung pada saat itu. Pameran Abad 21 tahun 1962 di Seattle adalah salah satu dari sedikit pameran dalam sejarah yang menghasilkan keuntungan, dan beberapa bahkan memujinya dengan merevitalisasi ekonomi kota dan mendorong perkembangan budayanya dengan cara ini. Yang paling menonjol, pameran tersebut menghasilkan pembangunan Space Needle dan Monorel Alweg, yang masih berjalan sampai sekarang. Langkah infrastruktur publik seperti ini dimungkinkan dalam konteks menampilkan teknologi terbaru untuk pameran, tetapi juga menghasilkan peningkatan infrastruktur yang dramatis bagi kehidupan kota.

Kubah Buckminster Fuller. Gambar © Flickr pengguna abdallahh

Expo 67 di Montreal adalah fitur utama dari perayaan Centennial Kanada tahun 1967. Berjudul “Man and His World,” tema pameran ini memamerkan kemajuan budaya dan teknologi manusia dan mendorong partisipasi dari negara-negara di seluruh dunia. Pilihan tempat untuk pameran terbukti menjadi tantangan, dan sebuah pulau baru dibuat di tengah Sungai St. Lawrence untuk menyediakan ruang tambahan. Bertujuan untuk mendemonstrasikan aplikasi arsitektur dan teknik yang inovatif, pameran ini menampilkan beberapa paviliun utama yang disumbangkan oleh berbagai negara.

Beberapa paviliun yang paling signifikan termasuk Manusia piramida Arthur Erickson dalam Komunitasnya dari bingkai kayu heksagonal, struktur kanopi tarik Frei Otto dan Rolf Gutbrod untuk paviliun Jerman, dan kubah geodesik Buckminster Fuller untuk paviliun AS.

Habitat 67. Gambar © Wladyslaw melalui Wikimedia Commons

Kemudian dikenal sebagai Montreal Biosphere, kubah Fuller memiliki pengaruh luas sebagai prototipe untuk tren baru dalam konstruksi. Strukturnya terdiri dari sel baja dan akrilik dan mencakup sistem naungan yang kompleks untuk mengontrol suhu internal. Pengunjung diedarkan melalui empat platform bertema yang dibagi menjadi tujuh tingkat dan diakses oleh eskalator terpanjang yang pernah dibangun pada saat itu. Selain itu, tampilan paviliun yang futuristik diperbesar dengan monorel Minirail yang melintasi paviliun. Sayangnya, bangunan tersebut menjadi korban kebakaran dahsyat pada Mei 1976 di mana semua bagian akrilik transparan bangunan hancur. Pada tahun 1990 properti itu dibeli dan diubah menjadi museum lingkungan yang terus menempati gedung hingga hari ini.

Sisa arsitektur terkenal lainnya dari Expo 67 adalah Moshe Safdie's Habitat 67. Bangunan ini awalnya dimaksudkan untuk menyediakan perumahan berkualitas tinggi di lingkungan perkotaan yang padat menggunakan unit modular prefabrikasi. Konfigurasinya berusaha menggabungkan elemen rumah suburban dengan kepadatan urban high-rise. Meskipun desainnya tidak berhasil mendorong tren bangunan prefabrikasi radikal, tipologi baru telah dibuat yang memperluas ide kami untuk apa yang mungkin dalam konstruksi prefabrikasi. Seperti beberapa bangunan lain yang telah kita lihat di pameran dunia, Habitat 67 tidak dibongkar setelah selesainya Pameran dan terus berfungsi sebagai kompleks perumahan hingga saat ini.

Osaka World Expo 1970

Menara Landmark Kiyonari Kikutake

Dengan tema “Kemajuan dan Harmoni untuk Umat Manusia,” Osaka World Expo pada tahun 1970 adalah Pameran Dunia pertama yang diadakan di Jepang dan mewakili keinginan untuk merangkul teknologi modern dan menciptakan potensi standar hidup yang lebih tinggi. Pameran ini datang pada waktu progresif tertentu dalam sejarah Jepang setelah mengalami periode perkembangan yang sangat pesat di tahun 1960-an dan memajukan perkembangan metabolisme. Pameran ini juga merupakan salah satu pameran yang paling banyak dihadiri dalam sejarah dengan lebih dari 64 juta pengunjung.

Expo 2010 Shanghai Cina

Paviliun Toshiba-IHI oleh Kisho Kurokawa. Gambar © Flickr CC pengguna m-louis

Expo 2010 di Shanghai berlangsung di tepi Sungai Huangpu dan memecahkan banyak rekor dalam sejarah pameran dunia. Dengan tema “Kota yang Lebih Baik – Kehidupan yang Lebih Baik,” pameran ini berusaha untuk menampilkan kemajuan luar biasa China dalam beberapa dekade terakhir sebagai kekuatan global dan mengangkat status Shanghai sebagai “kota besar dunia berikutnya.” Dikenal sebagai pameran termahal dalam sejarah pameran dunia, pameran ini menjadi tuan rumah dengan jumlah peserta terbesar dan juga merupakan tempat pameran terbesar yang pernah ada dengan luas 5,28 km persegi yang menakjubkan. Tidak mengherankan mengingat ruang lingkup dan skalanya, itu juga menarik rekor 73 juta pengunjung dan melampaui rekor kehadiran untuk satu hari dengan 1,03 juta pengunjung. Melampaui biaya pembersihan Beijing untuk Olimpiade 2008, persiapan untuk pameran Shanghai termasuk membersihkan lahan yang luas dan memindahkan bangunan dan pabrik yang ada di lokasi, membangun enam jalur kereta bawah tanah baru, serta merencanakan persiapan keamanan yang ekstensif.

Di antara proyek Expo yang paling menonjol adalah Paviliun Denmark BIG dan Paviliun Inggris Thomas Heatherwick. Mirip dengan tujuan Expo Milano tahun ini, banyak paviliun di Pameran menganjurkan fokus pada kelestarian lingkungan, efisiensi dan keragaman. Saat ini, lahan bekas situs Expo telah diubah menjadi taman dan bekas Paviliun China tetap ada.

Expo Milano 2015

Jelaslah bahwa Pameran Dunia memiliki dampak luar biasa pada dunia arsitektur dan teknologi bangunan, dan banyak yang berharap Expo Milano 2015 akan melanjutkan tradisi ini dengan tema “Memberi Makan Planet, Energi untuk Kehidupan.” Meskipun bahan bangunan tradisional dan teknologi dalam arsitektur telah berkembang jauh sejak Pameran Dunia pertama, masih ada banyak ruang untuk inovasi dalam menanggapi kebutuhan lingkungan yang mendesak saat ini. Pameran tahun ini mengakui fakta ini dan menawarkan peluang kepada arsitek untuk terus mengeksplorasi gagasan tentang keberlanjutan dan bagaimana kita terlibat dengan planet kita.


Kolonialisme Ditampilkan

Kebun binatang manusia, juga disebut eksposisi etnologis, adalah pameran manusia di abad ke-19, ke-20, dan ke-21, biasanya dalam keadaan yang disebut alam atau primitif. Pajangan sering kali menekankan perbedaan budaya antara orang Eropa peradaban Barat dan orang non-Eropa atau orang Eropa lainnya dengan gaya hidup yang dianggap primitif. Beberapa dari mereka menempatkan penduduk asli Afrika dalam sebuah kontinum di suatu tempat antara kera besar dan orang kulit putih. Eksposisi etnologis sejak itu dikritik sebagai sangat merendahkan dan rasis.

Gagasan tentang keingintahuan dan pameran manusia memiliki sejarah setidaknya selama kolonialisme. Pada tahun 1870-an, pameran populasi eksotis menjadi populer di berbagai negara. Kebun binatang manusia dapat ditemukan di Paris, Hamburg, Antwerpen, Barcelona, ​​London, Milan, dan New York City. Carl Hagenbeck, seorang pedagang hewan liar dan pengusaha masa depan banyak kebun binatang Eropa, memutuskan pada tahun 1874 untuk memamerkan orang Samoa dan Sami sebagai populasi “murni alami”. Pada tahun 1876, ia mengirim seorang kolaborator ke Sudan Mesir untuk membawa kembali beberapa binatang buas dan Nubia. Pameran Nubian sangat sukses di Eropa dan berkeliling Paris, London, dan Berlin.

Baik Pameran Dunia Paris 1878 dan 1889 menghadirkan Desa Negro (desa ngre). Dikunjungi oleh 28 juta orang, Pameran Dunia 1889 menampilkan 400 penduduk asli sebagai daya tarik utama. Pameran Dunia 1900 menampilkan diorama terkenal yang hidup di Madagaskar, sedangkan Pameran Kolonial di Marseilles (1906 dan 1922) dan di Paris (1907 dan 1931) juga menampilkan manusia dalam sangkar, seringkali telanjang atau setengah telanjang. Pameran 1931 di Paris begitu sukses sehingga 34 juta orang menghadirinya dalam enam bulan, sementara pameran tandingan yang lebih kecil berjudul Kebenaran tentang Koloni, yang diorganisir oleh Partai Komunis, menarik sangat sedikit pengunjung—di ruang pertama, itu mengingatkan kritik Albert Londres dan André Gide tentang kerja paksa di koloni. Desa Nomadik Senegal juga dihadirkan.

Pada tahun 1904, Apache dan Igorot (dari Filipina) dipajang di Saint Louis World Fair terkait dengan Olimpiade Musim Panas 1904. AS baru saja memperoleh, setelah Perang Spanyol-Amerika, wilayah baru seperti Guam, Filipina, dan Puerto Riko, yang memungkinkan mereka untuk “menampilkan” beberapa penduduk asli. Menurut Pdt. Sequoyah Ade:

Ota Benga di Kebun Binatang Bronx: Dari tanda di luar rumah primata di Kebun Binatang Bronx, September 1906: “Ota Benga, pameran manusia, tahun 1906. Umur, 23 tahun. Tinggi, 4 kaki 11 inci (150 cm). Berat, 103 pon (47 kg). Dibawa dari Sungai Kasai, Negara Bebas Kongo, Afrika Tengah Selatan, oleh Dr. Samuel P. Verner. Dipamerkan setiap sore selama bulan September.”


Sejarah – Pameran Dunia’s

Pameran Kolombia Dunia, juga dikenal sebagai Pameran Dunia Chicago dan Pameran Kolombia Chicago, adalah sebuah pameran internasional yang diadakan di Chicago, Illinois, Amerika Serikat, dari 1 Mei hingga 30 Oktober 1893 untuk memperingati 400 tahun Christopher Columbus& #8217 mendarat di Dunia Baru pada tahun 1492. Lebih dari 27.300.000 pengunjung menghadiri pameran selama enam bulan diadakan, termasuk perwakilan dari 46 negara. Bangunan pameran terutama dirancang dengan gaya arsitektur neoklasik. Arsitek Daniel H. Burnham, direktur karya eksposisi, menggabungkan arsitektur dan pahatan untuk mendefinisikan pameran ini seperti halnya rekayasa mendefinisikan Pameran Universal Paris 1889. Pengadilan Kehormatan juga disebut sebagai "Kota Putih".

Paviliun Kaca Libbey 1893 — Gambar Courtesy of Libbey, Inc.

Edward Drummond Libbey percaya bahwa untuk menjadi sukses, Libbey Glass Company membutuhkan reputasi internasional. Libbey merasa Pameran Kolumbia Dunia mendatang yang diadakan di Chicago akan menjadi panggung yang sempurna untuk mencapai tujuan ini.

Dia mendapatkan hak eksklusif sebagai satu-satunya perusahaan kaca Amerika yang diwakili jika dia ingin membangun pabrik kaca yang beroperasi penuh di Pameran. Dia juga merundingkan bahwa paviliun Libbey Glass akan dibangun di Midway Plaisance, jalan sepanjang satu mil di mana ribuan pengunjung akan melihat paviliun Libbey Glass setiap hari. Dia menyewa seorang arsitek Toledo yang terkenal, David L. Stine, untuk merancang sebuah bangunan yang berfungsi sebagai pabrik kaca yang mencakup tungku 10 pot, dan sebuah paviliun yang mampu menampung 2.000 orang. Pengunjung benar-benar dapat menyaksikan barang pecah belah yang dibuat oleh 40 peniup kaca pilihan tangan Libbey yang direkrut dari pabrik kacanya di Toledo, Ohio.

Tidak seperti banyak peserta pameran di Pameran, Libbey masuk ke paviliunnya. Awalnya biaya sepeser pun untuk mengamati pekerjanya meniup tangan dan memotong kaca, tetapi setelah pabrik terbukti sangat populer, Libbey menaikkan harganya menjadi seperempat. Sebagai imbalan atas harga tiket masuk, ia memungkinkan pengunjung untuk menerapkan biaya pembelian suvenir kaca, mendapatkan produknya di tangan pengunjung kaya yang dapat melakukan perjalanan ke Chicago. Suvenir kaca termasuk pemberat kertas yang menggambarkan adegan dari eksposisi, sandal kaca, cangkir dan piring, dan pengocok garam yang tidak biasa dalam bentuk telur. Subjek lainnya adalah Liberty Bell, kapak kaca yang menampilkan wajah George Washington, bel tangan, dan barang-barang kaca seperti boneka dan dasi.

Lebih dari dua juta orang telah mengunjungi Libbey Glass Pavilion ketika Pameran Chicago Columbian ditutup pada bulan Oktober, dengan perkiraan penjualan kaca senilai 20 mobil box. Seperti yang diperkirakan oleh Libbey, perusahaan barunya menerima liputan media nasional yang signifikan. Nama "Libbey" telah menjadi sinonim dengan barang pecah belah, yang memungkinkan perusahaan untuk menempatkan produk kaca potongan halus mereka di beberapa toko paling bergengsi di seluruh Amerika, termasuk Tiffany di New York City. Produk American Brilliant Cut Glass dari Libbey akan dicari selama beberapa dekade setelah pameran.

Pabrik kaca Libbey adalah salah satu atraksi paling populer. The Crockery and Glass Journal melaporkan: Pabrik di Pameran adalah model kelengkapan…. Kemarin fitur baru ditambahkan ke pameran yang sangat menyenangkan para pengunjung. Penonton dengan jumlah kecil masing-masing diizinkan untuk ‘meniup’ dan hasil yang lucu … membuat kerumunan besar dalam humor yang luar biasa. Pemotong dan penenun menarik sebagian besar perhatian umum…. Para penenun membuat kain dari benang kaca. Libbey menyertakan gaun kaca di pajangannya serta dasi dan boneka fiberglass sebagai suvenir.

Kaca Dari Pameran Dunia 1851-1904, oleh Corning Museum of Glass, New York


Pameran Dunia 1964: Sejarah, Foto & Memorabilia

pengantar: Gena Philibert-Ortega adalah ahli silsilah dan penulis buku “ Dari Dapur Keluarga. ” Dalam posting blog tamu ini, Gena menggunakan artikel surat kabar lama—dan koleksi foto seorang teman—untuk mengenang Pameran Dunia 1964.

Apakah Anda pernah ke Pameran Dunia? Apakah Anda atau anggota keluarga pergi ke Pameran Dunia 1964 di New York? Pameran Dunia, juga dikenal sebagai Pameran Dunia, berawal dari pameran pertama yang diadakan pada tahun 1851 di London. Pameran itu, yang dikenal sebagai “Pameran Hebat,” dikunjungi oleh sekitar 6 juta orang—dan itu hanyalah awal dari acara-acara besar yang memamerkan negara, industri, dan budaya.

Pameran Dunia 1964 adalah yang terbesar yang diadakan di New York, yang juga menjadi tuan rumah Pameran Dunia pada tahun 1853 dan 1939. Pameran ini merupakan gagasan para pengusaha yang memiliki kenangan indah menghadiri pameran tahun 1939 dan menginginkan pengalaman yang sama untuk keluarga mereka.*

Foto: Pameran Dunia 1964-65. Kredit: Doug Coldwell, Wikimedia Commons.

Pameran Dunia tidak hanya merupakan acara tersendiri, tetapi keluarga di luar negara bagian mungkin telah menggunakannya sebagai kesempatan untuk mengunjungi tempat-tempat wisata Amerika terdekat lainnya. Dalam iklan surat kabar Louisiana ini, tur bus ke tempat-tempat wisata terdekat seperti Washington D.C., Monticello, dan Kanada diiklankan. Misalnya, seorang teman saya yang pergi ke Pameran Dunia 1964 bersama keluarganya juga mengunjungi Central Park New York dan Bandara Internasional John F. Kennedy yang baru saja direnovasi. Pameran Dunia akan menjadi alasan yang baik bagi keluarga untuk berkendara lintas alam dan mengunjungi beberapa atraksi terkenal untuk menjadikannya liburan yang tak terlupakan.

Times-Picayune (New Orleans, Louisiana), 24 Mei 1964, halaman 39

Beberapa pameran Pameran Dunia ini menunjukkan kepada pengunjung seperti apa kehidupan di masa depan. Sekilas yang bisa mereka saksikan termasuk gedung IBM dengan demonstrasi teknologinya, termasuk komputer yang menerjemahkan teks Rusia ke bahasa Inggris dengan cepat. General Electric memberikan demonstrasi fusi nuklir, dan General Motors memberikan gambaran kepada para hadirin tentang seperti apa masa depan dalam pertunjukan Futurama mereka. Dan tidak hanya keluarga dapat melihat sekilas ke masa depan, mereka juga dapat mengalaminya secara langsung dengan wahana yang adil seperti monorel.** Dalam beberapa hal, pameran tersebut merupakan kombinasi dari Keluarga Jetson bertemu Disneyland (tiga pameran menandai debut atraksi Disneyland di masa depan).

Foto: tiket monorel dari Pameran Dunia 1964. Kredit: digunakan dengan izin dari Gary W. Clark.

Spesial TV Adil Dunia

Tidak semua orang dapat menghadiri Pameran Dunia—tetapi bahkan mereka yang tidak dapat melakukan perjalanan ke New York mungkin telah mengalaminya dari kenyamanan rumah mereka, dengan menontonnya di televisi. Artikel surat kabar tentang World's Fair TV ini secara khusus menyatakan bahwa Helovision akan digunakan, sebuah sistem yang memungkinkan pengambilan gambar dari helikopter, menunjukkan seluruh pameran dan atraksinya.

Boston Herald (Boston, Massachusetts), 19 April 1964, halaman 61

Kenangan Pameran Dunia 1964

Mungkin Anda terlalu muda untuk mengalami Pameran Dunia 1964? Maybe you didn’t have the opportunity to attend? Chances are that you may have had a later (even a very recent) experience with retired exhibits or materials from the fair. Aside from some of the structures still remaining at the site of the fairgrounds in Flushing Meadows-Corona Park in New York, some structures, such as the Unisphere, have been immortalized in movies including Men in Black, Iron Man 2 dan Kapten Amerika.

Photo: 1964 World’s Fair Unisphere. Credit: used with permission of Gary W. Clark.

Other structures and displays from the 1964 World’s Fair can be found throughout the United States today. Been to Disneyland in Southern California? If you have and you’ve ridden on “It’s a Small World,” you’ve experienced a World’s Fair attraction. “Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln,” another Disneyland attraction featuring an animatronic Abe, was originally featured in the Illinois State Pavilion at the fair.

Dinosaurs Popular

Judging from the old newspaper articles I’ve read about the fair, and the family photos I’ve seen, it would seem that the Tyrannosaurs Rex found in the Sinclair Dinoland exhibit was the most popular dinosaur to pose by.

Photo: Tyrannosaurs Rex exhibit from the 1964 World’s Fair. Credit: used with permission of Gary W. Clark.

This pre-fair newspaper article even encourages photographers to take a “wide angle lens for full length shots and a telephoto lens for portraits.”

Richmond Times (Richmond, Virginia), 10 November 1963, page 142

Those dinosaurs from Dinoland can still be seen today, found in several states: T Rex and Brontosaurus are found at the Dinosaur Valley State Park in Texas the Cleveland Zoo has Ankylosaurus and Stegosaurus can be found at Dinosaur National Monument in Utah, just to name a few.

Another Popular Exhibit

Dinosaurs aren’t the only exhibits that found a permanent home elsewhere. The US Royal Tire Ferris Wheel currently resides in Allen Park, Michigan, as a static display.

Photo: US Royal Tire Ferris Wheel from the 1964 World’s Fair. Credit: used with permission of Gary W. Clark.

Old newspapers, such as GenealogyBank’s online Historical Newspaper Archives, are a great place to look for articles that can help enhance your family’s story of going to the World’s Fair.

Genealogy Tip: When searching GenealogyBank for events your family attended, utilize the keyword search and indicate the words that you want the search to include—and even the words to exclude. Then narrow your search by a date or date range as well as a place. However, in the case of a large event like the World’s Fair, it would be featured in newspapers all over the United States—so don’t limit the location for your initial search.

To learn more about the 1964-65 fair, also check out the book The 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair by Bill Cotter and Bill Young.


HistoryLink.org

In the middle of the twentieth century, Spokane desperately needed to solve two daunting urban problems. First, a set of railroad tracks bisected the heart of the city, creating constant traffic jams.

"As long as you have a train running right through the middle of downtown, stopping traffic, you are pretty much a small town, hick outfit," said Neal Fosseen (1908-2004), Spokane's mayor in the 1960s (Youngs, 162).

"Trains and automobiles were all mixed up," said King Cole. "Those trains would be moving freight and you would get your car down on Howard Street at one of those train crossings. And you’d see the end of the train coming, coming, coming, coming and just as you're ready to cross -- load her up and get going -- the whole thing stops and goes backward again. This is how it was. It was silly that this was happening in this day and age, but it was happening every day, all the time" (Youngs, 162).

These tracks were sometimes stacked high on ugly steel viaducts, which created the second, related problem. The tracks and the big depots that served them effectively cut downtown Spokane off from its most spectacular natural asset: the rushing Spokane River and its white-foaming Spokane Falls. Spokane people jokingly called the railroad trestles the "Chinese Wall" (Youngs, 107).

Spokane and its Falls

The falls had originally been Spokane's main attraction. The Spokane Indians established salmon camps at its base and the earliest settlers were attracted to its majesty and waterpower. In 1908, the famous Olmsted Brothers Landscape Architecture firm devised a plan for Spokane's parks in which they noted that the falls were "a tremendous feature of the landscape, and one which is rarer in a large city than river, lake, bay or mountain" (Olmsted). They noted sardonically that the area around the falls had already been "partially 'improved,' as one might ironically say," but they expressed doubt whether anybody could be proud of these "improvements," which consisted of tracks, rail yards, and warehouses (Olmsted). They predicted that one day the city would come to its senses and reclaim the area for a park.

That day was about to arrive. In 1959, a group of downtown business and property owners started a group called Spokane Unlimited, with the goal of revitalizing Spokane's downtown. In addition to the railroad tangle, Spokane's downtown was facing other problems faced by cities across the nation in the 1950s. Stores were moving out to malls and people were moving out to the suburbs. The city's big downtown interests -- notably Washington Water Power, the big downtown banks, and the Cowles Publishing Co., which owned the two daily newspapers -- helped Spokane Unlimited raise enough money to commission an urban renewal plan from EBASCO Services Inc., a New York consulting firm.

EBASCO's 1961 report called for, among other things, removing the "Chinese Wall" of trestles and opening up the Spokane River and its midstream Havermale Island "as integral parts of downtown" (Youngs, 118). The report advocated "recapturing the beauty and attractiveness of the central business district's natural setting" (Youngs, 118). Berdasarkan The Fair and The Falls, J. William T. Youngs's indispensable history of Expo '74, many Spokane residents had, astonishingly, "forgotten the river was there" (Youngs, 118). EBASCO suggested accomplishing the work in five-year increments, ending in 1980.

King Cole and His Vision

How did EBASCO propose to accomplish this? Not through a world's fair, a concept far beyond anyone's imagination in 1961. Instead, the firm recommended passing general obligation bonds, a gas-tax increase, and acquiring federal urban renewal money. All of these proved to be difficult propositions. Spokane voters soundly defeated two bond issues in 1962 and 1963. The leaders of Spokane Unlimited scrambled for a new direction, and in 1963 they decided to hire a professional executive with urban renewal and planning experience, King Cole. Cole had worked on urban renewal projects in the California cities of Sacramento and San Leandro, and his goal in Spokane was to, somehow, turn the EBASCO plan into reality. He threw himself into the role with characteristic perseverance.

He recognized that Spokane's voters were unwilling to be dictated to by downtown moneyed interests. So he began by creating a citizen's group, Associations for a Better Community (ABC), as a grass-roots partner to Spokane Unlimited. As the 1960s progressed, the community began to coalesce around the idea of riverfront beautification in general, and, specifically, turning the railroad-choked Havermale Island into open, public space. Yet the obstacles were daunting. The property was "controlled by 16 different owners" (Official Program, 15). The biggest owners were, of course, the railroads. When the railroads were first approached about handing over their land to the city, one railroad executive was shocked to realize that the city was, in essence, asking for the equivalent of an $18 million donation (Youngs, 163). The chief executive officer of the Milwaukee Road said, "If I gave away that much valuable property, it would probably be my last act as CEO" (Rodgers, 31).

In the meantime, Spokane had been thinking about holding a big celebration to commemorate the centennial of its founding in 1873. Maybe, they reasoned, that celebration could finance the riverfront restoration. In 1970, Spokane Unlimited commissioned a feasibility study from Economics Research Associates (ERA) of California. The report was sobering. It said the city would be throwing away money if it spent it on a strictly local centennial. The city might spend as much as $1 million, and end up with no downtown improvements to show for it. If Spokane really wanted to make lasting improvements, it must set its sights much, much higher, said the report. It should think about an international exposition. That way, the city could get federal and state dollars, attract visitors from all over the world, and end up with a completely transformed riverfront.

A Real Honest-to-God World's Fair

A member of Spokane Unlimited's five-person executive committee recalled listening to an ERA speaker as he broached the idea. The five men looked at each other and one of them finally said, "Well, it looks to me like what we’ve got to do is have an Expo" (Young, 172).

Actually, this audacious idea was already at the back of King Cole's mind, after a conversation he had with Joe Gandy (1904-1971) who headed up Seattle's Century 21 World's Fair in 1962.

"Am I crazy to think about something like this for little Spokane?" Cole asked Gandy (Youngs, 69).

"No, you're not, you're right on target," Gandy said. "Little old Spokane is just about where Seattle was, relatively speaking, back in the '50s when we started thinking about a world's fair -- and we pulled it off" (Youngs, 170).

Spokane Unlimited immediately became excited about the idea of a "real, honest-to-God world's fair," with a timely theme: the environment (Youngs, 172). Not only was the environment a hip and progressive topic, but it also seemed an ideal theme for a fair with a spectacular waterfall running through its middle. Yet the leaders had to make certain that the idea was practical. No city as small as Spokane -- which had a population of about 170,000 -- had ever hosted a world's fair.

They commissioned ERA to make discreet inquiries to the Bureau of International Expositions in Paris, which governed such events. The bureau's head indicated that a Spokane exposition was "not only possible, but a damned good idea" (Youngs, 172). They also commissioned ERA to do a further study on the economics and logistics of an exposition. That report, issued in September 1970, was a ringing endorsement of the idea. It said that a world's fair would, in one monumental effort, solve the city's urban renewal problem and "recapture the natural setting of its falls" (Youngs, 174). The target date: 1974.

The Race Begins

Then the race began to get a world's fair funded, planned, publicized, built, and opened in less than four years. King Cole would later jokingly summarize the three phases that a big project like this must endure:

1. "You've got to be kidding!" 2. "My God, the dummies are going to do it! They're going to ruin us!" 3. "They’re doing it and it's working. Gee, that was a great idea that I had" (Youngs, 178-179).

The centennial committee was transformed into the Expo '74 Corporation, which quickly extracted pledges of $1.3 million in start-up money, mostly from local businesses. Corporation members then went to the Washington State Legislature, whose support was crucial if the idea was to advance at all. In March 1971, the legislature easily passed three bills -- one to form an Expo Commission, one to authorize an Expo surtax on corporate licenses and fees, and one to appropriate $7.5 million (later increased to $11.9 million) to build the Washington State Pavilion, which would later become the Spokane Opera House and Convention Center.

Winning votes at home proved to be more difficult. The city authorized a vote on a $5.7 million bond issue, which would pay for removing the downtown tracks and trestles and clearing Havermale Island. The money was not specifically for Expo '74, yet the vote was widely seen as referendum on the fair, since it would provide the fair's setting. Local opposition was vocal. Some people believed wealthy downtown interests were foisting the project upon the community they took to calling it "Exploit '74" (Youngs, 290). Some feared it would be a financial fiasco and others feared it would lead to growth and big-city problems. When the votes were counted on August 31, 1971, the bond issue had 57 percent approval, a solid majority, but agonizingly short of the 60 percent needed to pass.

The disheartened supporters believed they had two alternatives. Either they could abandon the fair altogether, or push through a temporary business-and-occupation tax. The B&O tax was traditionally anathema to the Spokane Chamber of Commerce and generally "about as popular as a skunk at a garden party," said one Expo backer (Youngs, 188). Yet this case was different, because the chamber and the big downtown businesses were solidly committed to Expo '74. In the end, all seven members of the Spokane City Council held their noses and voted for the B&O tax on September 20, 1971, despite the fact that four of them were facing re-election the very next day. The tax raised the necessary $5.7 million to tear out the tracks, open up Havermale Island and, in essence, make Expo '74 possible.

In October 1971, U.S. President Richard M. Nixon (1913-1994) gave Spokane's Expo '74 his official sanction. Then it needed to clear its "last and biggest" hurdle, a half-a-world away in Paris (Official Program, 17). Cole and the Spokane delegation went to the Bureau of International Expositions in Paris in November 1971. After lengthy but mostly cordial discussions, Expo '74 received the bureau's unanimous sanction as an official "special exposition." The Paris bureaucrats were apparently smitten with Spokane's "little old country town" humility and gumption (Youngs, 196). A Bicentennial-themed exposition in Philadelphia for 1976 was also approved.

In 1972, Washington's powerful Congressional delegation, led by Senator Henry "Scoop" Jackson (1912-1983), Senator Warren Magnuson (1905-1989), and Representative Thomas Foley (1929-2013), painstakingly shepherded through Congress an $11.5 million appropriation to build the U.S. Pavilion. Back in Spokane, Expo backers and city officials pulled off a crucial coup: They convinced the city's three railroads to move. The Union Pacific, Milwaukee Road, and Burlington Northern donated 17 acres of land to the city, worth many millions, and consolidated their routes to tracks away from downtown. It took many months of tense negotiations, and a series of complex land swaps, but one of Expo '74's key goals had already been accomplished. "The Spokane River was now cleared of railroad steel" (Official Program, 18).

The two depots were also torn down -- all except for one iconic piece of the Great Northern depot. It was the 155-foot-tall clocktower, with its nine-foot-diameter clock face. It would immediately become one of the most-recognized symbols of the fair, and of the city itself. The city also purchased some land using urban renewal grants from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Inviting the World

That same year, President Nixon issued an official proclamation inviting the world to Spokane's Expo '74. Now, Cole's job was to convince the world to show up. He traveled the world and soon landed a big fish, the Soviet Union, which committed to a $2 million pavilion. This gave Expo '74 instant credibility and publicity, since the Soviet Union had not had a world's fair exhibit in the U.S. since 1939-1940.

In the end, it proved difficult to lure national pavilions to faraway Spokane, especially European nations. Expo '74 eventually landed Japan, the Republic of China (Taiwan), South Korea, Canada, Australia, Iran, West Germany, and the Philippines. It was a "disappointing return," yet it was offset by the fact that the Soviet Union's pavilion alone "covered more space than all of the foreign exhibits combined at Seattle's 1962 world's fair" (Youngs, 236).

Luring corporate pavilions proved to be easier. Ford, General Motors, General Electric, Eastman Kodak, Boeing, and the Bell Systems signed up for pavilions. So did the states of Oregon and Montana and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. In the end, Expo '74 would cover 100 acres, slightly larger then Seattle's Century 21 World's Fair in 1962, but less than a tenth the size of the New York World's Fair in 1964. The Expo '74 site, which included a broad stretch of riverfront as well as Havermale Island and Cannon Island (sometimes called Crystal Island), was formally dedicated in May 1972.

Preparations and Panic Attacks

The next two years were both tense and exhilarating, as the site was transformed from rail yard to mud pit to environmental showcase. The fair weathered a leadership crisis in the summer of 1973 when the U.S. Department of Commerce determined that the fair needed an experienced fair manager. They brought in a new general manager, Petr Spurney (b. 1935), a veteran D.C.-area exhibition manager and planner. King Cole remained as the fair's president, yet his role shifted towards his strengths: selling the fair to the world. He traveled the country, appearing on TV shows such as "The Merv Griffin Show."

With the May 1974 deadline approaching, new doubts began to surface about the city's ability to pull off the event. The Philadelphia Bicentennial Expo had already been cancelled, and some outsiders were skeptical that Spokane could pull off what Philadelphia could not. A few insiders were skeptical, too. Six months before opening, one of the backers came up to Cole, tears streaming down his face, and blubbered, "King, you’ve got to call it off, you're gonna bankrupt the town!" (Youngs, 342). Cole was unfazed, since he had been warned by Seattle's Gundy to expect exactly that kind of pre-opening panic.

Even comedian Bob Hope (1903-2003) was a bit skeptical several months before the opening. He had come to film promotional ads for the fair, and after a tour, he told fair officials, "It scares me when I see all that mud out there. Are you sure you'll be ready to open on time?" (Bowers, 12). They assured Hope, somewhat nervously, that everything was on schedule. Up on the clocktower, a huge countdown sign displayed the days left until opening. The number went down to single digits before all of the construction was finished, all of the sod was laid and all of the paving was done. Even the fair's executives had to pull a few all-nighters, right before opening, planting flowers in the garden beds.

An International Flavor

On May 4, 1974, President Nixon officially declared the fair open, in a ceremony attended by 85,000. Under normal circumstances, the president's presence would have been an unmitigated coup for Expo '74. When Nixon's visit was first announced, Cole said, "This is an outstanding way for our fair to be recognized, as we have been an underdog and people didn't think we could put it together at all" (Youngs, 374). But these were not normal circumstances. Nixon was deeply embroiled in the Watergate scandal that spring and was at the nadir of his popularity. Five days earlier, he had released partial transcripts of the damaging tapes that would soon undo his presidency. However, his visit was a public relations victory for Expo '74, because it ensured that the eyes of the world were on Spokane for opening day. About 1,200 journalists were accredited for the opening.

The opening day reviews were mostly positive. Expo '74 clearly benefited from low expectations. Cole overheard a conversation in which an Associated Press reporter complained to a colleague that "it's not as much fun as I thought it would be" because he had wanted "to make fun of this place, but this is too nice to do that" (Youngs, 396).

A subsequent AP story said, "Absent is any hint that Expo, as wags suggested, is a big country fair. It has a true international flavor" (Youngs, 395).

The Fair and its Pavilions

Attendance remained strong, averaging about 35,000 per day over the summer months. About half came from Washington state, followed by visitors from, in order, California, Oregon, Montana, and Idaho. Only around 10 percent came from foreign countries, and most of those were from nearby Canada, making the "world's" part of World's Fair seem to be an overstatement. However, by the fair's end an estimated 100,000 people from countries other than the United States and Canada had visited the fair.

And what did they see? Among the foreign pavilions, the behemoth was the 54,500-square-foot Soviet Pavilion. Visitors walked past a giant statue of Lenin's head and a 4,500-pound aluminum relief map of the USSR, into a maze of "myriad spotlights, Daliesque artificial trees, fountains, chrome, plastic bubbles and colored liquid coursing through miles of transparent tubing" (Hill). It was filled with dioramas and displays about topics from urban renewal to nuclear physics to forestry. The pavilion's message about the fair's theme, the environment, seemed to one Waktu New York reporter to be "a phantasmagorical statement of how Russia's magnitude, might and diversity overshadow such mundane annoyances as dirty water and unbreathable air" (Hill). And on top of everything else, the pavilion had three movie theaters, one of which showed trained bears playing ice hockey.

The U.S. Pavilion, housed in its iconic tilted vinyl canopy, had a different perspective, with "mountainous displays of how we abuse our intrinsically magnificent environment" (Hill). The main attraction was an IMAX movie showing stomach-churning views of the Grand Canyon, and high-speed motorcycle races. "Barf bags" were available for those who got motion sickness. The U.S. Pavilion was by far the biggest, covering 179,250 square feet, under a 14-story tall steel mast.

The Japan Pavilion featured a serene formal garden, yet dwelt on the country's many environmental horrors. The Republic of China's fan-shaped pavilion contained one of the fair's biggest hits: a multimedia show on a 180-degree screen, with "three movie projectors and 28 slide projectors" along with rear-screen projector to simulate "lightning, fireworks and a moonrise" (Youngs, 448).

Canada's exhibit was on the newly renamed Canada Island (formerly Cannon Island or Crystal Island). In fact, the entire island was Canada's outdoor exhibit, featuring playgrounds, Indian totem-carvers, and an outdoor theater, all to the roar of the Spokane Falls. Youngs called it "nearly perfect as a display in an exposition devoted to the environment" (Youngs, 447).

Visitors collected "passport stamps" from each country's pavilion. Despite the fact that only 10 stamps comprised a complete Expo '74 international set, it was virtually impossible to collect them all in one day, even on a weekday when the lines were short. One reporter noted that simply walking, at a fast pace, from one end of the fair to the other, took a minimum of 30 minutes.

Entertainments and Attractions

Meanwhile, there were dozens of other attractions. The largest corporate pavilion was the 13,000 square foot Bell System Pavilion, where children could make phone calls to Mickey Mouse, Snow White and other Disney characters. The Ford Pavilion was mainly about the outdoors -- and also about Henry Ford's love of nature. The domed Kodak Pavilion was about "photography's role in the study and preservation of the environment" (Bowers, 104). Both the General Motors and General Electric pavilions made the case that improved technology could reduce pollution. GM showcased its new emission control system -- as well as an electric two-seater car.

Washington had the biggest state pavilion, encompassing the new 2,600-seat Opera House and an extensive art gallery. It also housed one of the surprise hits of the fair, the Kino-Automat. This was a 400-seat theater that showed two Czech-filmed comedies in which the audience was allowed to vote, with buttons at each seat, on the direction of the plot at key intervals. One of the films was for kids, and "audience participation was certainly less inhibited in the children's version," because the kids tended to shout their instructions at the characters instead of just pushing the buttons (Bowers, 107).

An amusement area was tucked in the southeast corner of the park, including a $500,000 roller coaster from Germany and an 85-foot-tall Ferris wheel from Italy. For 70 cents a ride, visitors could hop on contraptions called the Universa, Himalaya, Roundup, and Apollo 11.

Two different kinds of rides, the Sky Rides, were people-movers. One was essentially a two-person ski chairlift, intended to transport people from one end of the fair to the other. The second was an enclosed Gondola ride that transported sightseers across the thundering Spokane Falls. The Gondola dropped so close to the falls that the windows were sprayed by the mist.

When fairgoers were asked 40 years later for their Expo '74 memories, many people vividly recalled the food, which included Danish aebelskivers, Russian borscht, and -- most popular of all -- sausages, schnitzel, and Munich beer at the Bavarian Beer Garden. Some pavilions, including the Soviet Union's, had their own restaurants serving that country's specialties. The rest of the food was served by vendors clustered in the Food Fair portion of the grounds. There, visitors could order Philippine Camaron Rebosado, Indian curry, French onion soup, or Japanese tempura.

As the official program pointed out, it was entirely possible to spend only $10 a day at Expo '74. The tally went something like this: $4 for admission, about 70 cents for a meal from a food stand (or $3 for a formal, sit-down dinner), a stein of German beer for 80 cents, a souvenir for a dollar or two, and $1.40 to ride the roller coaster and Ferris wheel. All of the exhibits and pavilions were free with the price of admission.

Music at the Fair

That left enough money left over to buy a ticket to one of the almost daily concerts, most of them in the newly built Spokane Opera House, part of the Washington State Pavilion. The concert lineup was probably the most truly international aspect of the entire fair. It included Marcel Marceau, Victor Borge, Margot Fonteyn and the London Ballet, Isaac Stern, Itzhak Perlman, The Moiseyev Dancers of Russia, The National Dance Company of Senegal, Festa Brazil, the Republic of China Acrobat Spectacular, the Georgian State Dancers and Singers, the Japanese Folkloric Dance Company, and the Royal Shakespeare Theatre with Sir Michael Redgrave and Dame Peggy Ashcroft.

The big entertainment names included Liberace, Bill Cosby, Bob Hope, Jack Benny, the Pointer Sisters, Helen Reddy, the Carpenters, Grand Funk, Bachman-Turner Overdrive, Merle Haggard, Buck Owens, Van Cliburn, Chicago, Charlie Pride, and Ella Fitzgerald.

Mike Kobluk, Expo '74's director of visual and performing arts, had been a member of the Chad Mitchell Trio in the 1960s, so he used his connections to lure some of folk's biggest names: Harry Belafonte, Glenn Yarbrough, Gordon Lightfoot, the Irish Rovers, and John Denver. Denver was at the peak of his popularity -- "Annie's Song" hit No. 1 on the Billboard charts during Expo '74 -- and Denver incited a fan frenzy when he tried to tour the fair with Kobluk.

"He was just totally mobbed -- we got 200 yards into the site from our offices and realized there was no way we could do this," said Kobluk (Youngs, 409). They had to hustle him into a limousine and send him back to the hotel.

Expo '74 also had a separate Folklife Festival, which encompassed folk music, dance, and crafts from the Northwest and from a huge variety of ethnic groups. At various times on the Expo '74 grounds, visitors could hear bagpipes skirling, watch a demonstration of Basque sheepherding, and witness a Gypsy wedding. Calvin Trillin (b. 1935) writing for Orang New York, called the Folklife Festival "either the best thing at the fair, or a way of making fun of everything else, depending on your mood" (Trillin). He called it "informal instead of rigid," and said that it "emphasized participation -- helping to build a boat or learning how to rope a calf or jousting on logs" (Trillin).

An American Indian exhibit, called Native American's Earth, adjoined the Folklife Festival and provided a look at an entirely different kind of folklife, intrinsic to this particular spot on Earth. The Spokane Indians, who had fished for salmon for millennia below the Spokane Falls, were among the organizers and main participants, along with several other Northwest tribes. They also invited more far-flung tribes, including the Apaches and the Mexican Aztecs, for week-long visits. The tribes staged dances, in which they encouraged white onlookers to join in -- including, most memorably, Russian gymnast Olga Korbut (b. 1955), who was at the fair to perform an exhibition). Native American's Earth proved to be one of fair's most popular attractions.

Expo's Environment, Exxon's Environmentalism

The most powerful attraction of all wasn't a pavilion or an exhibit -- it was the mighty Spokane Falls. Visitors could feel the spray from several footbridges and from the Gondola ride, as well as from the many walkways along the riverbanks. One Chicago visitor said he would remember two things about Expo '74, the "wonderful fresh air" and the "wonderful turbulent river that cut right through the grounds" (Youngs, 396). He said he sometimes sat "for an hour or so, just watching the water pour through there" (Youngs, 396). This was fitting since the falls were, in essence, the root cause of the fair. It was also fitting, for a fair dedicated to the environment, that the iconic symbol was something nature-made, not man-made.

The media reviews were largely positive and many of them noted this fact. Sunset magazine wrote that "Expo's biggest show is its site, the crashing falls, the sound of water, the river overlooks" (Youngs, 498). The mixed, or negative, reviews often cited the inherent hypocrisy in having a preachy save-the-earth theme, even from the likes of General Electric, General Motors, Ford, and the government of the Soviet Union. Trillin wrote, "From whom do we acquire our information about how shrimp get along with oil rigs? From the Sierra Club? . . No, from Exxon" (Trillin). Meanwhile, the meatier Expo '74 environmental programs, a series of environmental panels, and symposia, were sparsely attended. Those who did attend were not typically fairgoers, but earnest environmentalists preaching to a tiny choir.

Nobody satirized Expo '74's environmental pretensions more thoroughly than the Yippies, the radical and mischievous Youth International Party founded by Abbie Hoffman (1936-1989). Two local Yippies organized a summer hippie encampment in a riverside park they named People's Park. Dozens of Yippies and other activists from around the country arrived at the camp throughout the summer. They held marijuana smoke-ins, and embarked on occasional protest forays into Expo '74 itself. They shouted slogans such as "Environmental World's Farce," and "Expo is Polluting the Area" (Youngs, 447). Once, somebody set fire to an Expo banner, causing police to arrest a dozen protesters, although the charges were later dropped.

Trillin also touched upon another weakness of Expo's environmental theme: The tedious nature of constant nagging and constant earnestness. He wondered whether the Soviets, with their pavilion, were "engaged in a plot to bore the world into submission" (Trillin). However, Expo's environmental mission was certainly not entirely unsuccessful. One visitor, reminiscing 40 years later, said, "This theme really sunk into me as a boy . . To this day, I would never even consider littering" ("Hello World").

A Great Big Paid-Off Party

The vote of the populace -- in the form of ticket sales -- was positive from the beginning. Attendance hit the one million mark on June 8, nine days before projections. Attendance remained strong throughout the summer, averaging about 35,000 per day. The crowds dropped off after school began in the fall, but then picked up toward the November closing date, as people realized that time was running out. The fair's fourth largest crowd arrived on November 2, and the second largest crowd arrived for closing day, November 3. Attendance was 62,438 on that day. The final tally: 5,187,826 visitors, nearly identical to the organizers' optimistic projections. Compared to attendance at other world's fairs, it was near the low end, and only about half of what Seattle had attracted in 1962. However, it was a clear success for off-the-beaten-track Spokane.

The financial situation looked rockier, at least at first. A few months after the fair's close, the Expo '74 Corporation announced it had a $723,961 deficit. However, the deficit was soon paid off by calling in the pledges made by local donors back in 1970. Many of those same donors came out financially ahead, because of the interest they made on their Expo bonds. Also, the hated B&O tax, which made the fair possible, was removed in 1975, three months ahead of schedule. Tax revenues had been higher than projected, due to increased business generated by the World's Fair. A story in The Spokesman-Review on closing day was headlined, "Local Businessmen Bask in Cash Glow of Expo Days" (Ream).

Mayor Rodgers's pithy quote -- "reduced to its essentials, we gave a great big party and the rest of the world came and paid the bill" -- wasn't entirely accurate, since taxpayers had footed plenty of the bill (Youngs, 503). Yet the world did in fact help Spokane pay for what it could never have afforded on its own, the permanent transformation of Spokane's downtown riverfront.

The Coming of Riverfront Park

As soon as Expo '74 was dismantled, work began on transforming the site into Riverfront Park. In 1978, a new president, Jimmy Carter (b. 1924), came to Spokane to dedicate Riverfront Park, which subsequently become the center of many of Spokane's biggest celebrations, including its Fourth of July and New Year's Eve festivities, as well as its big annual sports festivals, Bloomsday and Hoopfest.

Meanwhile, the Washington Pavilion was sold by the state to Spokane for one dollar, and became the Spokane Opera House and Convention Center. Spokane's downtown was given new energy and it remained stronger commercially than the downtowns of many similar-sized cities. Today, shoppers, tourists and downtown office workers stroll unimpeded to the river and the falls. Rodgers wrote in 2006 that the park complex "changed the entire character of the downtown," and continues to do so today (Rodgers). In others words, Expo '74 accomplished precisely what it was intended to accomplish.

Forty years later, evidence of Expo '74 is easy to find. The clocktower and the tilted dome of the U.S. Pavilion (minus the vinyl covering) still dominate the park's skyline. Kids exploring the park can stumble upon the old outdoor Boeing Amphitheater. The Bavarian Beer Garden building now houses the historic Looff Carrousel.

Beyond it all rumbles the reason for Expo '74's existence: the majestic Spokane Falls. From the safety of the Gondola ride, Riverfront Park visitors can still experience the roar and the spray.

Main entrance, Expo '74, Spokane's World Fair, Spokane, 1974

Artist's conception, Expo '74 World's Fair, Spokane, August 8, 1971

Courtesy Washington State Digital Archives (EXPO74AA80)

Railroad trestle demolition in preparation for Expo '74 World's Fair, Spokane, ca. 1972

Courtesy Spokane Municipal Government (EXPO74CC39)

Expo '74, Spokane's World Fair logo

Courtesy UW Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest

King Cole (1922-2010), Spokane, 1970s

Courtesy Northwest Museum of Arts and Culture

Petr L. Spurney (b. 1935), general manager, Expo '74 World's Fair, Spokane, 1974

Courtesy Washington State Digital Archives (Image No. AR-07809001-ph004426)

President Richard M. Nixon, opening day, Expo '74 World's Fair, Spokane, May 4, 1974

Courtesy Washington State Digital Archives (Image No. EXPO74BB100)

U.S. Pavilion (NBBJ, 1974), Expo '74, Spokane's World Fair, Spokane, 1974

Soviet Pavilion, Expo '74 Spokane's World Fair, 1974

Courtesy UW Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest

Grand Entrance, Expo '74 World's Fair, Spokane, 1974

Courtesy Washington State Digital Archives (EXPO74EE97)

Inside U.S. Pavilion, Expo '74 World's Fair, Spokane, 1974

Courtesy Washington State Digital Archives (Image No. EXPO74XXX3)

U.S. Pavilion, 1902 Great Northern Railroad Clock Tower, Expo '74 World's Fair, Spokane, ca. 1974

Courtesy Washington State Digital Archives (Image No. AR-07809001-ph001707)


7 Palace of Fine Arts, Chicago

The Palace of Fine Arts has been a staple pavilion at World’s Fairs all over the U.S., and many have been given new functions to extend the life of the building. One very famous Palace of Fine Arts is in Chicago, though most visitors are unaware of its early beginnings.

The Columbian Exposition was held in Chicago in 1893 and went on to become one of the most well-known World’s Fairs in history. Its Fine Arts building is one of the Fair’s few remaining structures and is currently home to the Museum of Science and Industry in Jackson Park, along with some of Chicago’s other popular museums.


Tonton videonya: Ցուցահանդես նվիրված Երիտասարդության համաշխարհային օրվան,


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